Offener Brief für Kostentransparenz zu Publikationskosten in der Wissenschaft

stefankasberger - June 30, 2016 in Open Science

Sehr geehrte Mitglieder des Wissenschaftsausschusses des Nationalrates,
sehr geehrter Herr Wissenschaftsminister,
sehr geehrter Herr Bundeskanzler,

Wir vom Verein Open Knowledge Austria stehen für eine Welt, in der Wissen für alle frei zugänglich und verwendbar ist. In diesem Zusammenhang wollen wir Sie durch diesen offenen Brief auf ein international zur Zeit heiß debattiertes Problem in Wissenschaft und Forschung hinweisen: die mangelnde Kostentransparenz der durch Verlage vertriebenen wissenschaftlichen Ergebnisse.

Wissenschaftliche Informationen werden in Form von Publikationen und Datenbanken zu einem überwiegenden Teil von öffentlich finanzierten Bibliotheken der Forschungsstätten angeschafft, und können nach Erwerb auch nur von Personen genutzt werden, die Angehörige der jeweiligen Institutionen sind. Der Vertrieb wissenschaftlicher Informationen liegt in der Hand einiger weniger kommerzieller Anbieter. Gemäß jüngster Zahlen aus Finnland verteilen sich schätzungsweise zwei Drittel der Bibliotheksbudgets für wissenschaftliche Informationsangebote mittlerweile auf fünf Anbieter, wobei der Trend von Akquisitionen und Fusionen der letzten Jahre eine weitere Marktkonzentration erwarten lässt. Durch dieses Oligopol sind einerseits rapide Preissteigerungen zu befürchten, andererseits, dass Wissensbestände, die mit öffentlichen Mitteln produziert wurden, von einigen wenigen kommerziellen Anbietern kontrolliert werden. Dies führt zu geringerer Innovation durch einen Mangel an Wettbewerb.

Einer der zentralen Gründe dieser Entwicklung ist, dass sich diese Informationsanbieter eine Geheimhaltungsklausel für die Verträge mit den Bibliotheken vorbehalten. D.h. es kann nicht öffentlich gemacht werden, wie viel eine Bibliothek einem Informationsanbieter für ein bestimmtes Produkt zahlt. Das hebelt nicht nur das konstitutive marktwirtschaftliche Prinzip des fairen Wettbewerbs aus, sondern widerspricht auch dem Transparenzgebot für Leistungen, die überwiegend mit öffentlichen Mitteln erzeugt werden !

Nach einer Reihe von Einzelinitiativen in mehreren Ländern ist nun Finnland das erste Land, das systematisch alle Ausgaben von Bibliotheken an die jeweiligen Informationsanbieter offengelegt hat. Wir bitten Sie, diesem Beispiel zu folgen und den gesetzlichen Rahmen zu schaffen, der Kostentransparenz öffentlicher Mittel auch österreichischen Bibliotheken und Forschungsstätten ermöglicht. Nur so wird ein effizienter Umgang mit öffentlichen Mitteln möglich sein. Darüber hinaus erhalten auch kleinere Anbieter, auch aus Österreich, wieder faire Wettbewerbschancen.

Wie man jüngsten Pressemeldungen entnehmen kann, möchten Bundesregierung und Nationalrat die Diskussion um ein Informationsfreiheitsgesetz wieder aufnehmen. Die Verabschiedung eines solchen, möglichst weitgehenden Gesetzes, das auch die Kostentransparenz für wissenschaftliche Informationen berücksichtigt, wird von der Open Knowledge Austria nachdrücklich unterstützt.

Kostentransparenz ist eine notwendige aber noch keine ausreichende Maßnahme für eine offenere Wissenschaft. Daher möchten wir Sie abschließend auch auf die jüngst publizierten “Vienna Principles. A Vision for Scholarly Communication” hinweisen. Sie wurden von einer Gruppe junger WissenschafterInnen und WissenschaftsadministratorInnen des Open Access Network Austria (OANA) zur Diskussion gestellt und sollen Grundlage für eine offenere Wissenschaft sein.

Die Open Knowledge Austria ist der österreichische Zweig (Chapter) der Open Knowledge International und hat sich der Förderung des Zugangs zu und der Verbreitung von freiem und offenem Wissen in vielfältigen Ausprägungen verschrieben. Freies Wissen führt zu mündigen und aufgeklärten Bürgern, es schafft gesellschaftlichen und ökonomischen Mehrwert und ist in einem demokratischen Staat unerlässlich.

Mit freundlichen Grüßen

Die Open Knowledge Austria.

OSCE Days 2016: Helsinki report

llinkola - June 30, 2016 in Featured, Project report, projects

 

by Chris Holtslag and Jason Selvarajan, Helsinki, Finland

The Open Source Circular Economy Days 2016 in Helsinki, Finland was held on June 11th. An estimated 100 visitors and participants came to the old railyard (Veturitallit in Pasila) to enjoy a day of discovering, making and learning. The venue was an old train turntable (kaantopoyta ) which has been converted into an urban experimental urban greenhouse. The greenhouse is managed by the ngo Dodo to showcase urban farming methods and off-grid energy system. The whole system generates its own energy from solar pv, wind and a battery bank which powered all of the nearby workshops. The event was sponsored by the Tiina ja Antti Herlinin Foundation  & Open Knowledge Finland .

Workshops

Mushroom Farm in an Old Fridge

OSCE16HEL-2

Mushroom startup Helsieni open-sourced their design of a micro-mushroom farm, repurposing a used refrigerator to grow mushrooms. 

osce16hel_3

With this fridge you can have a growing and fruiting room for your home-cultivated oyster mushrooms. The workshop consisted of making holes in the fridge and installing two CPU-fans, a humidifier, a lamp and a humidity / thermometer. Read a more detailed report about the workshop here.

USB Recharger / D.I.Y. Powerwall

Osce16hel_4

Instructions for making your own USB Powerbank

The experts from Pixelache ‘s trashlab  showed the participants of the workshop how to dismantle a laptop battery safely and how to harvest the Lithium-Ion batteries inside. They provided the participants with instructions (above) on how to make their own USB Powerbank.

Osce16hel-5

The Tesla Powerwall made the idea of  having a battery in your house to power your electrical appliances  mainstream. The only problem is, it’s expensive. The good news is:  you can make one yourself! All you need is 100 old laptop batteries. 4 out of 6 of the Lithium-Ion cores in your average  laptop battery are perfectly functional. These are the same batteries Tesla uses in it’s Powerwall and cars! The D.I.Y. Power Wall  project is about upcycling e-waste while simultaneously moving towards  renewables. The community power bank project is a collaborative effort spanning over multiple workshops so many different people are harvesting batteries and helping to make it.

OSCE16HEL-6

The inside of a typical ‘broken’ laptop battery. 6 of the 8 cells still worked perfectly.

Toy Car to Rope-climbing Robot

OSCE16HEL-7

Burhan showed how to convert an old toy car and turn it into a rope climbing robot. Materials were ice cream sticks, metal wire, rubber bands and some glue. Kids were really enjoying this workshop! Check out Burhan’s Robot youtube channel.

Emulate:  Kitchen Open Design

osce16hel-8OSCE16HEL-9osce16hel-10

Potentials of open design processes for sustainable design is widely  discussed yet seldom explored. Hence, this workshop aims to explore its  potentials through emulating an open design process and sharing  environment for parts and their assemblages. Throughout the workshop,  mainly product / part longevity will be explored along with interrelated  topics of standardization, personalization, emotional durability, ease  of maintenance, repair, reuse and upgrading. Theme of the workshop is  kitchen practices that are currently shaped around small kitchen  appliances.  A generative design toolkit will be introduced to participants to quickly explore and mock-up design  ideas, producing physical outcomes. Yekta Bakırlıoglu is a student of Aalto and this workshop was part of his research at Nodus Sustainable Design Research Group.

Peeponics System in a Greenhouse

OSCE16HEL-11

1)  Pee in a jerry can 2) let it sit for several weeks to sterilize and to convert urea to ammonium 3) Mix pee with water 1:9 ratio 4) water plants that like nitrates with it.

The Peeponics workshop was about setting up the pee-powered hydroponics system for the season. It began with an introduction into the chemistry of turning pee into nutrients for plants. In a nutshell pee into a container and let it sit for several weeks. During this time urea from pee turns to ammonia and then ammonium which is used by plants. A ratio of 1:9 Pee:Water is used to dilute the nutrients to a good level in a 100 L barrel. The plant bed is a simple rectangular box padded with a water proof plastic. A hole at the bottom is used to fill and drain the nutrients ‘ebb and flow style’ to the plants which are held-up with clay pellets. A hole near the top is used as an overflow valve (like in a bathtub). The pump is timed so that it almost fills the bed and then stops for one hour. Currently just on timers but the goal is to automatit with a raspberry pi. 

OSCE16HEL-12

Basic Peeponics chemistry

Peeponics  closes nutrient loops from plants to pee and then back to plants again. The food grown in the greenhouse are served on weekend brunches along  side dumpster dived food and therefore boosting permaculture. This workshop was given by Jaakko Lehtonen from Dodo , an environmental organization focusing on applied research on urban agriculture in Finland.

Soap from used Cooking Oils

osce16hel-13
Water + Lye + Used Cooking Oil + ‘Finnish Peat‘ for scent = Recycled DIY Soap.
osce16hel-14
Ruby from Joosoap was teaching the participants this method from Taiwan for making soap from used cooking oil. By combining water, lye and oil the chemical process of saponification occurs, during which quite some heat is generated! The mixture is liquid and can be poured into any shape, after which it needs to cool down for some weeks and harden. JooSoap is also an upcylcing project to reduce cooking oil waste while producing local soap. 

Energy Renovation at Home

osce16hel-15

Maaria from Eksergia.fi is an expert on energy-saving technologies in and around the house. She gave an interactive lecture about the possibilities people have to reduce their energy demand and increase their comfort! Eksergia.fi is an open source database of and a guide on how to conserve energy at home, especially in the Finnish climate. This workshop focused on practical ways to reduce energy consumption in the home. More info here (Finnish): http://eksergia.fi

Circuit bending

osce16heö-16

Jonne Pitkanen created fabolous soundscapes from circuit bent instruments (hacked kids toys with added circuits to make effects like distortion and reverb).

Video Broadcast

Cindy Kohtala and Lilli Linkola made a video broadcast (with some technical glitches) from OSCE Days Helsinki 2016:

A big thanks to all the volunteers, organizations & startups giving the workshops that made this event possible!

INFO

More information can be found on the official website.
Photogalleries
Facebook page for the event
Our livecast on Hangouts Air

The post OSCE Days 2016: Helsinki report appeared first on Open Knowledge Finland.

Τριτη ερευνα για την προοδο των κρατων για ανοικτα δεδομενα

Olga Kalatzi - June 30, 2016 in Featured

Μία στις δέκα βάσεις εθνικών δεδομένων είναι ανοικτές και διαθέσιμες, σύμφωνα με την τρίτη ετήσια έρευνα Open Data Barometer που έγινε από το World Wide Web Foundation.

Η έρευνα εξετάζει διαφορετικές κατηγορίες δεδομένων, όπως για παράδειγμα το περιβάλλον και η εκπαίδευση, σε 92 χώρες .

chartΤο 90% των κρατικών δεδομένων παραμένουν ακόμα κλειστά, σχεδόν το ίδιο ποσοστό με την περσινή έκδοση της έρευνας. Στο Barometer αναφέρεται μάλιστα ότι παρά τη ραγδαία αύξηση των κυβερνητικών σχεδίων και πολιτικών σχετικά με τα ανοικτά δεδομένα, τα πιο ουσιαστικά και σημαντικά είναι μη διαθέσιμα στους πολίτες.

Πάνω από τις μισές χώρες έχουν ήδη σε λειτουργία πρωτοβουλία ανοικτών δεδομένων όπως και καταλόγους με ανοικτά δεδομένα, τα οποία είναι διαθέσιμα για χρήση. Ταυτόχρονα ένας σημαντικός αριθμός των υπόλοιπων χωρών ξεκινούν ανάλογες πρωτοβουλίες.

«Οι πρωτοβουλίες ανοικτών δεδομένων δεν μπορούν να είναι αποτελεσματικές αν δεν συνοδεύονται από μια κουλτούρα ανοικτότητας, όπου οι πολίτες ενθαρρύνονται να κάνουν ερωτήσεις και να συμμετέχουν, καθώς και από ένα νομικό πλαίσιο» υπογραμμίζεται στην έρευνα.

Τα ανοικτά δεδομένα δεν έχουν ακόμα υποστηριχτεί από το νόμο ή από κάποια πολιτική, ενώ τα υπάρχοντα νομικά πλαίσια που αναφέρονται σε πρωτοβουλίες ανοικτών δεδομένων είναι ιδιαίτερα αδύναμα. Αυτό αποτελεί, όπως αναφέρεται στο Barometer, απόρροια της τάσης των κρατών να αντιμετωπίζουν τα ανοικτά δεδομένα σαν ένα πείραμα χωρίς μακροπρόθεσμη πολιτική για την εφαρμογή του.

chart (1)Ιδιαίτερα μετά την υιοθέτηση των 17 στόχων για βιώσιμη ανάπτυξη, η ανάγκη για το άνοιγμα των δεδομένων γίνεται ακόμα πιο επιτακτική. Ωστόσο, όπως δείχνει και η έρευνα, υπάρχουν πολλά που πρέπει να υλοποιηθούν. Πιο συγκεκριμένα, μόνο ένα μικρό ποσοστό κρατών παρέχει πρόσβαση σε δεδομένα, χρήσιμα για τους στόχους, όπως είναι για την υγεία, την εκπαίδευση, τις δημόσιες δαπάνες, την απογραφή. Σε γενικές γραμμές υπάρχει καθυστέρηση στην εκτέλεση και την επίδραση των δεσμεύσεων για τα ανοικτά δεδομένα, ενώ η διάθεση των δεδομένων και η δυνατότητα της ανοικτότητας είναι υπαρκτή κυρίως στις πλούσιες χώρες.

Άλλο ένα σημαντικό ζήτημα που προκύπτει από την έρευνα είναι το γεγονός ότι 26 από τις 30 χώρες με τα υψηλότερα ποσοστά έχουν και δυνατή οικονομία. Χώρες όπως για παράδειγμα της Αφρικής με λιγότερους πόρους είναι αρκετά πίσω στην διάθεση δεδομένων. Αυτό έχει ως συνέπεια να δημιουργείται ένα μεγάλο χάσμα και να αυξάνεται η ανισότητα των χωρών.chart (2)

Τα αποτελέσματα δείχνουν ότι το κίνημα των ανοικτών δεδομένων βρίσκεται σε ένα σημείο καμπής, όπως συμπεραίνει η αναφορά, ενώ τονίζει τη σημασία ύπαρξης ισχυρών νόμων περί της ιδιωτικής ζωής, νομοθεσίας για την ελευθερία της πληροφόρησης και του δικαιώματος της πρόσβασης σε δεδομένα.  

 

Πηγές: Open Data Barometer, FreedomInfo.org  

The Secret History of Holywell Street: Home to Victorian London’s Dirty Book Trade

Adam Green - June 29, 2016 in 19th-century erotica, antique porn, Art & Illustrations, Culture & History, Featured Articles, French postcards, Henry Spencer Ashbee, history of pornography, holywell street, Index Librorum Prohibitorum, Literature, my secret life, Photography, Sex in Victorian period, Victorian porn, Victorian pornography, victorian sexuality, vintage erotica, vintage porn

Victorian sexuality is often thought synonymous with prudishness, conjuring images of covered up piano legs and dark ankle-length skirts. Dr Matthew Green uncovers a quite different scene in the sordid history of Holywell Street, 19th-century London's epicentre for erotica and smut.

Opendata.ch/2016: The Excerpts

oleglavrovsky - June 29, 2016 in event, Lausanne, National

Quotes and impressions from the morning of the 2016 edition of the Opendata.ch conference. For all presentations and downloads click here.

Text by Martina Kammermann, photography by Nicolas Fojtu, licensed CC BY 4.0.

#people #machines #algorithms

«Imagine a machine that is a hundred times smarter than you. You wouldn’t feel comfortable if this machine would be controlled by just a small group.»

Marcel Salathé, Associate Professor at EPFL

Open source algorithm challenges mentioned: @crowd_ai


#opensource #e-vote #transparency

“Realising open source is a daily internal struggle. There are very few people who know the subject, and it is very difficult for them to be understood. We need community.”

«Réaliser l’open source, c’est une lutte interne de tous les jours. Il y a très peu de gens qui connaissent la matière, et c’est très difficile de le faire comprendre. On a besoin d’une communauté.»

Anja Wyden Guelpa, chancelière d’Etat a Genève


#swiss #government #portal

“We will see soon new cantons on the portal. There will also be a user data requests forum.”

«On va voir des nouveaux cantons prochainement sur le portail. Il y a aura aussi un forum des souhaits pour des usagers.»

Jean-Luc Cochard, Bundesarchiv


#opendata #history #learning

“The hunter-gatherers have already picked the low-hanging fruit. We must create scalability.”

«Déjà les chasseurs-cueilleurs ont cueilli les fruits les plus accèssibles. Il faut créer des échelles.»

Simon Chignard, Auteur


#public #transport #openness

“The idea is to make as much data as possible public, including that which is not favorable to ourselves.”

«L’idée, c’est de rendre au public autant possible tous les données, compris celles qui ne nous sont pas favorable.»

Guillaume Leborgne, SNCF


#govtech #business #process

«Open data is sustainable when it makes data production dramatically easier for the people, not harder.»
Joshua Goldstein, Department of Better Technology


#civic #business #progress

«We are working on several reforms that will make startups that use government data more viable in the Ukraine. They should have tax reductions and many other privileges. And we are trying to persuade investors that these startups matter.»

Denis Gursky, 1991.vc

Reposted from blog.SODA.camp.

Marvels of Things Created and Miraculous Aspects of Things Existing

Adam Green - June 28, 2016 in al-Qazwini, animals, arabic, bestiary, cosmography, Marvels of Things Created and Miraculous Aspects of Things Existing, mythical creatures, mythical monsters, persian, Zakariya al-Qazwini

Images from an exquisitely illustrated Persian translation, thought to hail from 17th-century Mughal India, of Zakariya al-Qazwini's medieval treatise on all things wondrous.

Marvels of Things Created and Miraculous Aspects of Things Existing

Adam Green - June 28, 2016 in al-Qazwini, animals, arabic, bestiary, cosmography, Marvels of Things Created and Miraculous Aspects of Things Existing, mythical creatures, mythical monsters, persian, Zakariya al-Qazwini

Images from an exquisitely illustrated Persian translation, thought to hail from 17th-century Mughal India, of Zakariya al-Qazwini's medieval treatise on all things wondrous.

Gæsteblog: Impressions of City Data Exchange Copenhagen

Guest - June 27, 2016 in åben data, dataportal, english, Government, København, offentlige data, open gov

Dette er et gæsteindlæg af Leigh Dodds, der rådgiver omkring åbne data og er tilknyttet Open Data Institute (ODI). I indlægget beskrives initiativet med Københavns “City Data Exchange“, der samler data fra forskellige åbne og lukkede kilder og udgør en form for markedsplads for data. Fra Open Knowledge Danmarks side er vi især skeptiske overfor ideen om at tage åbne data offentliggjort på åbne platforme (som Københavns åbne data portal, der er baseret på CKAN) og genpublicere dem bag login og med begrænsning i vilkårene for videreanvendelse. Indlægget blev oprindeligt postet på Leigh Doods egen blog og er udtryk for skribentens egne holdninger.


 

First Impressions of Copenhagen’s City Data Exchange

Copenhagen have apparently launched their new City Data Exchange. As this is a subject which is relevant to my interests I thought I’d publish my first impressions of it.

The first thing I did was to read the terms of service. And then explore the publishing and consuming options.

Current Contents

As of today 21st May there are 56 datasets on the site. All of them are free.

The majority seem to have been uploaded by Hitachi and are copies of datasets from Copenhagen’s open data portal.

Compare, for example this dataset on the exchange and the same one on the open data portal. The open version has better metadata, clearer provenance, more choice of formats and a download process that doesn’t require a registration step. The open data portal also has more datasets than the exchange.

Consuming Data

Datasets on the exchange can apparently be downloaded as a “one time download” or purchased under a subscription model. However I’ve downloaded a few and the downloads aren’t restricted to being one-time, at least currently.

I’ve also subscribed to a free dataset. My expectation was that this would give me direct access to an API. It turns out that the developer portal is actually a completely separate website. After subscribing to a dataset I was emailed with a username and password (in clear text!) with instructions to go and log into that portal.

The list of subscriptions in the developer portal didn’t quite match what I had in the main site, as one that I’d cancelled was still active. It seems you can separately unsubscribe to them there, but its not clear what the implications of that might be.

Weirdly there’s also a prominent “close your account” button in the developer portal. Which seems a little odd. Feels like two different products or services have been grafted together.

The developer portal is very, very basic. The APIs expose by each dataset are:

  • a download API that gives you the entire dataset
  • a “delta” API that gives you changes made between specific dates.

There are no filtering or search options. No format options. Really there’s very little value-add at all.

Essentially the subscribing to a dataset gives you a URL from which you can fetch the dataset on a regular basis rather than having to manual download it. There’s no obvious help or support for developers creating useful applications against these APIs.

Authorising access to an API is done via an API key which is added as a URL parameter. They don’t appear to be using OAuth or similar to give extra security.

Publishing Data

In order to publish data you need to have provided a contact phone number and address. You can then provide some basic configuration for your dataset:

  • Title
  • Description
  • Period of update: one off, hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, annual
  • Whether you want to allow it to be downloaded and if so, whether its free or paid
  • Whether you want to allow API access and if so, whether its free or paid

Pricing is in Kronor and you can set a price per download or a monthly price for API access (such as it is).

To provide your data you can either upload a file or give the data exchange access to an API. It looks like there’s an option to discuss how to integrate your API with their system, or you can provide some configuration options:

  • Type – this has one option “Restful”
  • Response Type – this has one option “JSON”
  • Endpoint URL
  • API Key

When uploading a dataset, you can tell it a bit about the structure of the data, specifically:

  • Whether it contains geographical information, and which columns include the latititude and longitude.
  • Whether it’s a time series and which column contains the timestamp

This is as far as I’ve tested with publishing, but looks like there’s a basic workflow for draft and published datasets. I got stuck because of issues trying to publish and map a dataset that I’d just downloaded from the exchange itself.

The Terms of Service

There are a number interesting things to note there:

Section 7, Payments: “we will charge Data Consumers Service Delivery Charges based on factors such as the volume of the Dataset queried and downloaded as well as the frequency of usage of the APIs to query for the Datasets

It’s not clear what those service delivery charges will be yet. The platform doesn’t currently provide access to any paid data, so I can’t tell. But it would appear that even free data might incur some charges. Hopefully there will be a freemium model?

Seems likely though that the platform is designed to generate revenue for Hitachi through ongoing use of the APIs. But if they want to raise traffic they need to think about adding a lot more power to the APIs.

Section 7, Payments: As a Data Consumer your account must always have a positive balance with a minimum amount as stated at our Website from time to time

Well, this isn’t currently required during either registration or signing up to subscribe to an API. However I’m concerned that I need to let Hitachi hold money even if I’m not actively using the service.

I’ll also note that in Section 8, they say that on termination, “Any positive balance on your account will be payable to you provided we receive payment instructions.” Given that the two payment options are Paypal and Invoice, you’d think they might at least offer to refund money via PayPal for those using that option.

Section 8, Restrictions in use of the Services or Website: You may not “access, view or use the Website or Services in or in connection with the development of any product, software or service that offers any functionality similar to, or competitive with, the Services

So I can’t, for example, take free data from the service and offer an alternative catalogue or hosting option? Or provide value-added services that enrich the freely available datasets?

This is pure protecting the platform, not enabling consumers or innovation.

Section 12, License to use the Dataset: “Subject to your payment of any applicable fees, you are granted a license by the Data Provider to use the relevant Dataset solely for the internal purposes and as otherwise set out under section 14 below. You may not sub-license such right or otherwise make the Dataset or any part thereof available to third parties.

Data reuse rights are also addressed in Section 13 which includes the clause: “You shall not…make the Dataset or any part thereof as such available to any third party.

While Section 14, explains that as a consumer you may “(i) copy, distribute and publish the result of the use of the Dataset, (ii) adapt and combine the Dataset with other materials and (iii) exploit commercially and noncommercially” and that: “The Data Provider acknowledges that any separate work, analysis or similar derived from the Dataset shall vest in the creator of such“.

So, while they’ve given clearly given some thought to the creation of derived works and products, which is great, the data can only be used for “internal purposes” which are not clearly defined especially with respect to the other permissions.

I think this precludes using the data in a number of useful ways. You certainly don’t have any rights to redistribute, even if the data is free.

This is not an open license. I’ve written about the impacts of non-open licenses. It appears that data publishers must agree to these terms too, so you can’t publish open data through this exchange. This is not a good outcome, especially if the city decides to publish more data here and on its open data portal.

The data that Hitachi have copied into the site is now under a custom licence. If you access the data through the Copenhagen open data portal then you are given more rights. Amusingly, the data in the exchange isn’t properly attributed, so it break the terms of the open licence. I assume Hitachi have sought explicit permission to use the data in this way?

Overall I’m extremely underwhelmed by the exchange and the developer portal. Even allowing for it being at an early stage, its a very thin offering.I built more than this with a small team of a couple of people over a few months.

It’s also not clear to me how the exchange in its current form is going to deliver on the vision. I can’t see how the exchange is really going to unlock more data from commercial organisations. The exchange does give some (basic) options for monetising data, but has nothing to say about helping with all of the other considerations important to data publishing.

亞洲矽谷系列 – 台灣吸引外國人才的優勢何在?

OK Taiwan - June 27, 2016 in 特稿

自6月7日的新聞得知,國發會人力發展處處長林至美表示,將有一個 “Contact Taiwan” 的攬才平臺上線,並認該平台會是「國家層級的一個單一媒合平台」,能夠發揮「攬才」的功能。

該平台上會有幾個定位:

  1. 國家層級:由政府出面攬才。
  2. 媒合:為想來台灣工作的外國人與國內企業的工作機會媒合。

來自不同國家的求職者會因為一個政府網站而前往台灣嗎?網站建置和營運之目的為何?在經過初步的徵詢後,我們得到以下回饋:

  1. 國內每年有這麼多畢業生?為什麼政府不好好的想想如何讓這些畢業生們在畢業後就能馬上為企業用?提高國內的就業機會?而是自國外找人才,讓國內的畢業生們畢業即失業
  2. 為什麼國內的企業不想麼培植人才,而是進口外國低薪白領人才?
  3. 我很樂意用國內畢業的大學生啊!
  4. 我是新創企業,希望能外國學生來實習,但政府的法規怎麼都是優惠給大企業?我們小型的新創企業怎麼辦?
  5. 那些聘用外籍實習生的評點制度怎麼這麼複雜?
  6. 有很多外國人才在台灣啊!他們多數是住在台灣接國外的案子、領國外的薪水。台灣的物價較歐美國家便宜、網路又這麼方便,台灣人對外國人也十分友善,所以他們在台灣其實過得像天堂一樣,對他們來說只要有便利的網路,就沒有國界的限制,台灣的工作環境、企業願意提供的薪資並不佳,所以有技術、有實力的外國人為什麼要為台灣的企業工作
  7. 不少外籍人士來台灣學中文同時累積自己工作經驗後,轉往中國或香港工作
  8. 所得稅、勞健保的問題,這些在人力仲介公司的幫忙下,他們只要付最低的費用就可以享受勞健保了。
  9. 國內其實有很多高階的白領級人才,他們可能想轉換跑道、提前退休,但仍有工作能力,卻找不到工作。
  10. 僑外生的薪資是4萬多元,為什麼國內的畢業生只能領2萬4千至2萬8千元?

吸引外國人才為企業工作的條件何在?

我們進一步檢視台灣政府對於攬才的政策新聞稿:

  1. 全球競才方案 – Contact Taiwan
  2. 林揆:亞洲矽谷是政府五大創新產業重要計畫 將是台灣經濟成長的引擎
  3. 從歐美延攬外籍人才效益看我國人才政策

在上述的政策願景中,只提到了為了延攬人才進來台灣工作並留在台灣,會與企業商討因應措施,讓在台灣活環境更友善,也為了方便企業留用人才,而打算鬆綁某些政策。

從台灣勞資雙方在工作情況來看,「超時工作」與「低薪」似乎是造成勞資雙方關係不佳也是台灣不易留住人才的原因。這兩日也看到不少關台灣工作環境相關新聞的報導,例如上週沸沸揚揚的罷工事件:

  1. 關鍵評論專題:華航罷工,為勞工的尊嚴起身而戰
  2. 聯合新聞網:大學畢業生28K 薪資倒退16年
  3. 自由時報:立院縮短工時公聽會 資方:希望延長加班上限

先自台灣政府在2015年時擬定的政策來看工作時數:

自105年起,公、私部門每週正常工時將同為40小時,扣除假日後,公務人員一年法定正常工時為2000小時,勞工為1992小時,以103年勞工的平均年工時2,134.8小時而言,勞工平均每月加班時數約11.8小時

主計總處最新的報告裡,則提到了2015年(104年)全年每人月工時平均為175.3小時,若整合勞動部調查結果,可以得知在該年度裡有46%的員工加班,平均每個月加班的時數為18.2小時,與2014年(103年)相較多出了7個小時。

配合OECD的數據,台灣在2014年的平均年工時是2,134.8小時,韓國是2,124小時,日本1,729小時,OECD會員國平均年工時是1,770小時,看得出來台灣在2014年的平均工時高於日本、韓國,更高於OECD會員國的平均工時。

從工作時數、每月加班數看起來,愈多的工作時數與加班時數會造成生活上的負面影響,自以上的數據可以觀察到,台灣的工時增加了,對生活的負面影響也增加了。

再自薪資水準來看,若是同樣自主計總處的資料來看2015年與2014年相較,除了製造業的漲幅較為明顯外,其他服務業的薪資雖然有小幅的增加,但幅度有限,有些產業甚至是不到1%的成長度。

有多少外國人在台灣工作?

從政策新聞稿看來,這次政府的目標是鎖定白領階級,或是配合新政府所謂的五大創新創新產業而找尋的外國專業人士。於是查閱勞動部104年底外國專業人員概況來看看在台灣工作的外籍專業人士有多少?都從事了哪些工作?

單就這份統計報告來看,可以讀出以下重點:

  1. 多數的外國專業人士申請的工作類別為「專門性技術性工作」,其次是「補習班語文教師工作」。
  2. 若依照國籍來分,日本籍的專業人士為主要來源。
  3. 若依照國籍與申請工作類別來看,日本籍的專業人士申請「專門性技術性工作」為最多次,而美國籍的專業人士以申請「補習班語文教師工作」。

由於勞動部的報告裡是統計「次數」而非「人數」,而在台灣要具有工作資格也要有所謂的居留證,所以再自移民數的網站中取得最近一次(統計至2015年04月30日)的統計資訊可以得知在台灣最多的外籍人士在職業別上外籍勞工(包含營建業技工、製造業技工、家庭幫傭、監護工、船員等),總共有540,956人,這些外籍勞工多分部在桃園市(92,150人)、台中市(76,055人)及新北市(74,394人)。若是依照移民署的職業類別來看,從事商業、教師的人數最多,這些人都在台北市,另外也觀察到其實在高雄市與台中市的外籍人士並不少,反觀在亞洲矽谷預定地桃園的外籍專業人士,可能反而不如高雄、台中、台北、新北來得多。

自專業人才顧問公司Michael Page的「2016年大中華區薪資與就業展望」報告中,在其調查的對裡,只有29%的雇主考慮用外籍人士,有34%的雇主則是擔心人才外流至海外,同時在報告中也提到了他們所觀察到的台灣現況,例如:

  1. 科技業的薪資雖然稍有調漲,但仍低於國際水準。
  2. 台灣企業較願意僱用沒有工作的台灣人,而不願僱用外國人士。
  3. 台灣的企業主面臨人才出走至中國與香港找尋更好的工作機會與較高的薪資。

綜合人力業者的觀察,再反觀台灣政府的政策,似乎缺少了人力業者所觀察到現實生活情況,在擬定與執行所謂的全球攬才時,忽略了人力市場真正的供需狀況。

我們看到政府打算透過網站作為吸引國外人才來台工作的管道,藉由國外的研究報告來作為支撐政策執行的基礎,刻意忽略了國情不同、勞資關係與政策法規的不同,是否能造就同樣的正向效果?

從人力業者的報告、國家內部的統計數據、國內各媒體的新聞資料,都顯示出台灣應該先以建置健全的工作環境為目標。從這次華航的罷工行動裡,看得出來影響層面、社會成本是如何昂貴。致力建立一個留住自己國家人才的健全勞動政策、打造勞雙方雙贏的工作環境,都提醒了執政團隊應該要著眼的重點不是網站,而是工作環境 — 要留住人才,要先有良好的工作環境,與企業的人資部門、人力業者、工會代表溝通,了解勞方的需求,資方提供適合的薪資、工時、加班制度、福利,都比花錢、花心力再去做一個政府網站來得實際


作者:譚宛宛

編輯:OK Taiwan

 

Introducing W4P, a crowdsourcing for open, social and local projects.

pjpauwels - June 24, 2016 in crowdfunding, crowdsourcing, Featured, General, Open Innovation, Open Source

After 10 months of figuring what we need to build, building it and then testing it in real life situation we can now say:

W4P is alive! Or at least in a solid bèta.

You can find our presentation in English here:

Interested in hearing this talk again and do you have a location and or crowd? Or are you ready to start up a W4P crowdsourcing platform? Contact us!