The Genesis of The School of Data Fellowship

Katelyn Rogers - July 20, 2017 in fellowship

In 2013, data literacy was, and in many ways remains, a nascent field. Unsurprisingly, finding reliable trainers to carry out School of Data missions around the world was a struggle. We started our Fellowship programme, as a way to address the lack of data literacy trainers throughout the world. Even in 2013, it was clear that while short term data trainings were effective at raising awareness of potential uses of data for storying telling and advocacy, more long term interventions were required to actually build data skills in civil society and the media. We designed the School of Data Fellowship to address these two primary challenges that we had identified and were regularly confronting during the course of our work:
  1. there is a severe shortage of data trainers able to work with local communities and adapt training to local needs and/or languages.
  2. organisations and individuals need to engage with data over a long period of time for data activities to become embedded within their work.

Building the foundations

Our Fellowships are nine-month placements with School of Data for existing data-literacy practitioners. We identify high potential individuals with topical expertise and help them mature as data literacy leaders by working alongside School of Data and our global network. At the start of the Fellowship, we create an individualised programme with each Fellow, designed to equip them with the skills they need to more effectively further data literacy in their community. This programme is built around the core competencies required for furthering data literacy: community building; content creation; and knowledge transfer (see Data Literacy Activity Matrix) for more details on these competencies). From the outset, we were successful at recruiting high-potential individuals to participate in the programme and throughout the years the applicant pool has only grown. We have worked with the Fellows to adapt and translate materials, develop original learning content and provide training to local civil society. Each year, we make tweaks in the programme to reflect learnings both from where we are achieving our goals as well as where we have fallen short.

An evolving process

Over the years, we have fine-tuned the goals of the programme to reflect what we have found the Fellowship programme to be most effective at achieving as well as what is needed to advance data literacy. These goals are as follows:
  1. identify, train and support individuals who have the potential to become data leaders and sources of expertise in their country and/region;

  2. kickstart, or strengthen, data literacy communities in the countries where current and former Fellows are active
Prior to 2016, we had not clearly articulated that kickstarting data literacy communities was one of the goals of the Fellowship programme but it had become obvious that this was a critical component to the sustainability of our work. Given that data literacy is such a nascent field, it was always important, in each new city/country, for the Fellows to do substantial awareness raising work. The Fellows who were most successful would provide trainings and organise meet-ups not necessarily to build individual skills but to start sensitising local communities to the idea that data is a powerful tool for civil society.

A successful approach

In late 2016, we conducted interviews with two dozen School of Data Fellows to better understand whether we were achieving our goals as a programme. These interviews formed the basis of our first Fellowship Outcomes Mapping. Some of the highlights of these interviews can be found below.

The Fellows:

We found that the Fellowship has been successful in achieving its initial goal, creating a community of qualified local trainers knowledgeable in School of Data methodologies and actively spreading data literacy in their respective countries:
  1. Better Understanding of the Data Needs and Challenges of Civil Society: Over the years, we have recruited a number of developers, data analysts and entrepreneurs, who, prior to the Fellowship, had little understanding of the specific challenges faced by civil society in using data. Through working with local NGOs, governments and newsrooms, these Fellows gained an understanding of how they could use their skills to serve civil society more effectively.

  2. New Methodologies & Approaches for Training: Through the Fellowship programme, Fellows were able to tap into a network of data literacy practitioners and learn from the best about how to build an effective training programme for any audience.
  3. International Visibility & Connections: Finally, through the School of Data programme, Fellows were introduced to an international community, increasing both the visibility of their work and providing them with a number of new and exciting opportunities to train and to be recruited for consultancies and jobs. Fellows have gone on to work for large newsrooms, international organisations, development agencies and governments.

The local communities

In addition to supporting Fellows to achieve their own goals and personal development, the Fellowship programme also seeks to strengthen data literacy within local civil society. The potential of the Fellowship to have a meaningful impact on local civil society groups was formally acknowledged in 2016, with the inclusion of a specific programmatic goal relating to community-building. As seen in School of Data’s research on the value of different formats of data literacy activities, the Fellowship format is most successful in achieving outcomes related to awareness-building (understanding of data uses, awareness of data skill gaps, knowledge of the data pipeline) as well as the kickstarting of data-related activities locally. This awareness raising work is required in every sector. It is not necessarily because there is an emerging data community focused on transparency and accountability in public finance or extractives that the local health or water CSOs will be sold on the idea of integrating more data into their work. To reflect these learnings, in 2016, we started recruiting Fellows with a particular topical interest or expertise who would work on data literacy in that specific sector.

Next Steps

We are continuously working to improve the Fellowship process and are overjoyed most of our past Fellows go on to become active members of the School of Data network. Over the next few months, we will be posting a series of articles about the Fellowship programme including:
  • Steps we have taken to ensure diversity in each Fellowship class as well as the challenges we still face in terms of inclusivity
  • Funding the low-visibility infrastructure-building work that is a critical part of the Fellowship process
  • How and where we have struggled to make the Fellowship model work and plan we have for changing that
We welcome any thoughts and feedback that you have. Get in touch on twitter @schoolofdata or via our contact page. Flattr this!

The Genesis of The School of Data Fellowship

Katelyn Rogers - July 20, 2017 in fellowship

In 2013, data literacy was, and in many ways remains, a nascent field. Unsurprisingly, finding reliable trainers to carry out School of Data missions around the world was a struggle. We started our Fellowship programme, as a way to address the lack of data literacy trainers throughout the world. Even in 2013, it was clear that while short term data trainings were effective at raising awareness of potential uses of data for storying telling and advocacy, more long term interventions were required to actually build data skills in civil society and the media. We designed the School of Data Fellowship to address these two primary challenges that we had identified and were regularly confronting during the course of our work:
  1. there is a severe shortage of data trainers able to work with local communities and adapt training to local needs and/or languages.
  2. organisations and individuals need to engage with data over a long period of time for data activities to become embedded within their work.

Building the foundations

Our Fellowships are nine-month placements with School of Data for existing data-literacy practitioners. We identify high potential individuals with topical expertise and help them mature as data literacy leaders by working alongside School of Data and our global network. At the start of the Fellowship, we create an individualised programme with each Fellow, designed to equip them with the skills they need to more effectively further data literacy in their community. This programme is built around the core competencies required for furthering data literacy: community building; content creation; and knowledge transfer (see Data Literacy Activity Matrix) for more details on these competencies). From the outset, we were successful at recruiting high-potential individuals to participate in the programme and throughout the years the applicant pool has only grown. We have worked with the Fellows to adapt and translate materials, develop original learning content and provide training to local civil society. Each year, we make tweaks in the programme to reflect learnings both from where we are achieving our goals as well as where we have fallen short.

An evolving process

Over the years, we have fine-tuned the goals of the programme to reflect what we have found the Fellowship programme to be most effective at achieving as well as what is needed to advance data literacy. These goals are as follows:
  1. identify, train and support individuals who have the potential to become data leaders and sources of expertise in their country and/region;

  2. kickstart, or strengthen, data literacy communities in the countries where current and former Fellows are active
Prior to 2016, we had not clearly articulated that kickstarting data literacy communities was one of the goals of the Fellowship programme but it had become obvious that this was a critical component to the sustainability of our work. Given that data literacy is such a nascent field, it was always important, in each new city/country, for the Fellows to do substantial awareness raising work. The Fellows who were most successful would provide trainings and organise meet-ups not necessarily to build individual skills but to start sensitising local communities to the idea that data is a powerful tool for civil society.

A successful approach

In late 2016, we conducted interviews with two dozen School of Data Fellows to better understand whether we were achieving our goals as a programme. These interviews formed the basis of our first Fellowship Outcomes Mapping. Some of the highlights of these interviews can be found below.

The Fellows:

We found that the Fellowship has been successful in achieving its initial goal, creating a community of qualified local trainers knowledgeable in School of Data methodologies and actively spreading data literacy in their respective countries:
  1. Better Understanding of the Data Needs and Challenges of Civil Society: Over the years, we have recruited a number of developers, data analysts and entrepreneurs, who, prior to the Fellowship, had little understanding of the specific challenges faced by civil society in using data. Through working with local NGOs, governments and newsrooms, these Fellows gained an understanding of how they could use their skills to serve civil society more effectively.

  2. New Methodologies & Approaches for Training: Through the Fellowship programme, Fellows were able to tap into a network of data literacy practitioners and learn from the best about how to build an effective training programme for any audience.
  3. International Visibility & Connections: Finally, through the School of Data programme, Fellows were introduced to an international community, increasing both the visibility of their work and providing them with a number of new and exciting opportunities to train and to be recruited for consultancies and jobs. Fellows have gone on to work for large newsrooms, international organisations, development agencies and governments.

The local communities

In addition to supporting Fellows to achieve their own goals and personal development, the Fellowship programme also seeks to strengthen data literacy within local civil society. The potential of the Fellowship to have a meaningful impact on local civil society groups was formally acknowledged in 2016, with the inclusion of a specific programmatic goal relating to community-building. As seen in School of Data’s research on the value of different formats of data literacy activities, the Fellowship format is most successful in achieving outcomes related to awareness-building (understanding of data uses, awareness of data skill gaps, knowledge of the data pipeline) as well as the kickstarting of data-related activities locally. This awareness raising work is required in every sector. It is not necessarily because there is an emerging data community focused on transparency and accountability in public finance or extractives that the local health or water CSOs will be sold on the idea of integrating more data into their work. To reflect these learnings, in 2016, we started recruiting Fellows with a particular topical interest or expertise who would work on data literacy in that specific sector.

Next Steps

We are continuously working to improve the Fellowship process and are overjoyed most of our past Fellows go on to become active members of the School of Data network. Over the next few months, we will be posting a series of articles about the Fellowship programme including:
  • Steps we have taken to ensure diversity in each Fellowship class as well as the challenges we still face in terms of inclusivity
  • Funding the low-visibility infrastructure-building work that is a critical part of the Fellowship process
  • How and where we have struggled to make the Fellowship model work and plan we have for changing that
We welcome any thoughts and feedback that you have. Get in touch on twitter @schoolofdata or via our contact page. Flattr this!

The History of Ink, including its Etymology, Chemistry, and Bibliography (1860)

Adam Green - July 19, 2017 in calligraphy, history of writing, ink, type, typography, writing

Delightful little book from Thaddeus Davids and co, one of the largest ink manufacturers of their time: a wonderful example of form matching content.

Ολοκλήρωση του 1ου Σχολείου Δεδομένων στην Περιφέρεια Δυτικής Μακεδονίας για στελέχη της ηλεκτρονικής διακυβέρνησης των ΟΤΑ

Χριστίνα Καρυπίδου - July 19, 2017 in Featured, Featured @en, News, ανοικτά δεδομένα, Εκδηλώσεις, Νέα, συμμετοχικός προϋπολογισμός, σχολείο δεδομένων

Με επιτυχία πραγματοποιήθηκε το 1ο Σχολείο Δεδομένων στην Περιφέρεια Δυτικής Μακεδονίας για στελέχη της ηλεκτρονικής διακυβέρνησης των ΟΤΑ, την Τετάρτη 18 Ιουνίου 2017, στο Πανεπιστήμιο Δυτικής Μακεδονίας. Η διοργάνωση Σχολείων Δεδομένων σε στελέχη του δημοσίου αποτελεί δέσμευση (Δέσμευση 32) του Ιδρύματος Ανοικτής Γνώσης Ελλάδας στο πλαίσιο του 3ου Εθνικού Σχεδίου Δράσης για την Ανοικτή Διακυβέρνηση […]

Data is a Team Sport: One on One with Heather Leson

Dirk Slater - July 19, 2017 in community, Data Blog, data literacy, data protection, Event report, Heather Leson, Humanitarian Organisations, IFRC, research, Team Sport

Data is a Team Sport is our open-research project exploring the data literacy eco-system and how it is evolving in the wake of post-fact, fake news and data-driven confusion.  We are producing a series of videos, blog posts and podcasts based on a series of online conversations we are having with data literacy practitioners. To subscribe to the podcast series, cut and paste the following link into your podcast manager : http://feeds.soundcloud.com/users/soundcloud:users:311573348/sounds.rss or find us in the iTunes Store and Stitcher. This episode features a one on one conversation with Heather Leson, the Data Literacy Lead at International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. As a technologist, she strengthens community collaboration via humanitarian technologies and social entrepreneurship. She builds partnerships, curates digital spaces, fosters volunteer engagement and delivers training while inspiring systems for co-creation with maps, code and data. At the International Federation of Red Cross Red Crescent, her mandate includes global data advocacy, data literacy and data training programs in partnership with the 190 national societies and the 13 million volunteers. She is a past Board Member at the Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team (4 years), Peace Geeks (1 year), and an Advisor for MapSwipe – using gamification systems to crowdsource disaster-based satellite imagery. Previously, she worked as Social Innovation Program Manager, Qatar Computing Research Institute (Qatar Foundation) Director of Community Engagement, Ushahidi, and Community Director, Open Knowledge (School of Data).

Main Points from the Conversation:

  • Data protection is the default setting for humanitarian organisations collecting data.
  • She’s found its critical to focus on people and what they are trying to accomplish, as opposed to focusing on tools.
  • She’s added ‘socialisation’ as the beginning step to the data pipeline.

Heather’s Resources

Blogs/websites Heather’s work The full online conversation:
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Brazil’s Information Access Law and the problem of ‘un-anonymous’ request for public information

Open Knowledge Brazil - July 19, 2017 in Brazil, Freedom of Information, OK Brazil, Open Government Partnership

It is critical to build mechanisms that allow and promote the exercise of right to information access in a way that is safe to Information Access Law users. In this blog, Ariel Kogan (managing director of Open Knowledge Brasil) and Fabiano Angélico (transparency and integrity adviser and author of the book “Lei de Acesso à Informação: Reforço ao Controle Democrático” (Information Access Act: Reinforcement for the Democratic Control) ) talk about the importance of anonymous requests of information to preserve the identity, privacy and safety of citizens. According to the Brazilian Information Access Law, which has been effective for five years this May, the information requesting party – either an individual or an entity – needs to inform the government authority of its name and a document number. This obligation has shown to be problematic, especially for journalists and activists who search for information that might uncover cases of corruption or misappropriation of public resources.  Brazil submitted its third action plan to Open Government Partnership in December of 2016. One of the country’s commitments is to “create new mechanisms or improve existing mechanisms to evaluate and monitor the passive transparency of Law 12.527 of 2011 in the Federal Government”. Another commitment is to “safeguard the requesting party’s identity under excusable cases through adjustments in request procedures and channels”. 

Image: Digital Rights LAC (CC-BY-SA 2.0)

Brazil has however failed to adhere to some of the commitments of the Open Government Partnership. The following paragraphs document the treatment meted out to some individuals who have dared to use the Information Access Act to request for somewhat sensitive data. Several cases of subtle or aggressive threats, employee termination and other kinds of reprisals have been reported. A member of a non-governmental organisation (NGO), Renato used a state government’s system to request information on their military police. A military police officer responded to his request with a threatening tone. The officer even mentioned the names of the fundraisers of the NGO of which Renato is a member. Joana, a federal government public employee, requested a ministry information about a quite controversial contract. Shortly afterwards and without previous notice, she was dismissed from her leadership position while she was on vacation. João, a state company public employee, suspected that the company’s top executives were misusing public funds. He asked his brother to request information access. He was then discharged with cause for disobedience. Feeling threatened, Maria was afraid to request information about the budget execution of the town where she lived. Searching the Internet, she found another person who lived in a very distant town who was in a similar situation. They then decided to exchange favours, and one requested information on behalf of the other. It was safer for both of them. Manoel, a journalist, requested information from a city hall via the Information Access Act. However, he didn’t inform that he was a journalist. In a few days, the municipal secretary of communications called him and, is a less than cordial tone, said that Manoel didn’t need to use the Information Access Law to collect data.  All names mentioned above are fictitious.  The reported cases, however, are unfortunately real. In addition to discharges and threatens, the requesting party identification leads the government to respond to information requests according to the requesting party “status”. Research in several countries, including Brazil, shows that the response to the same information request is more complete when the requesting party is identified as an investigator from a renowned university, for example than when the individual is identified just by his/her name. These cases demonstrate that the identification of the requesting party may have not democratic and republican consequences. In all cases, an illegal and disproportionate force was used to silence requests for information. It is, therefore, critical to develop mechanisms that allow and promote the exercise of the right to safely and, if necessary, anonymously access information. This would be enriching for all and would allow social control in many critical situations. The Information Access Act may be an excellent tool to identify and monitor suspicions of misuse of public resources, contract frauds, or other improprieties in public agencies. For this law to be effective, however, it is essential that the requesting party is safeguarded. We believe this will be the next great challenge to the Information Access Act implementation process.  

Save the date: Open Science Workshop with Bianca Kramer and Jeroen Bosman

Peter Kraker - July 17, 2017 in event, HandsOn, Open Science, Workshop

We would like to give you a brief heads-up for our upcoming Open Science workshop on 20 September 2017 in Vienna*. Please register here. Open Science – What’s in it for me? Bianca Kramer and Jeroen Bosman from Utrecht University will guide us through the wonders of Open Science for this 1-day workshop. What?
The aim of the workshop is to provide researchers and administrators with hands-on examples of Open Science tools and workflow examples across various disciplines. We do not aim to discuss Open Science on a policy level, but rather want to help you discover what’s out there and how researchers can implement Open Science into their daily scientific routines. Together with the audience, we will explore open practices with respect to differences between scientific disciplines and show the added value that open approaches can generate for the researchers themselves. Who?
Researchers from all disciplines, research support managers and administrators are invited When?
Wednesday, 20 September 2017, 9:00 to 17:00 Where?
*Detailed information on the location and event schedule will be provided in upcoming weeks. Don’t miss out on this event and register here. This workshop is organized by the Vienna Principles Working Group of the Open Access Network Austria, Austrian Transition to Open Access (AT2OA), Ludwig-Boltzmann Gesellschaft and Open Knowledge Austria.

101 Innovations in Scholarly Communication. CC BY. Source: https://innoscholcomm.silk.co/

Gastos abertos lança curso online de capacitação sobre dados abertos

Elza Maria Albuquerque - July 16, 2017 in Dados Abertos, Destaque, Gastos Abertos

No dia 19/07 (quarta-feira), vamos começar o curso de Capacitação Gastos Abertos. O objetivo é capacitar, principalmente técnicos do poder público, em relação ao controle social, leis de transparência e acesso à informação, dados abertos, como disponibilizá-los e também como utilizar as ferramentas já criadas pela Open Knowledge Internacional. Ao todo, serão três aulas via YouTube e Facebook Live. Os responsáveis pela capacitação vão ser Lucas Ansei, desenvolvedor de software pelo AppCívico e um dos responsáveis pelo projeto Gastos Abertos, e Thiago Rondon, coordenador do projeto Gastos Abertos, criador do AppCivico e conselheiro da Open Knowledge Brasil. Os interessados em realizar o curso devem preencher o formulário de inscrição.

Informações gerais

Confira, abaixo, os detalhes de cada aula. AULA 1: dia 19/07/2017 às 15:00 GMT -3 A Lei de Acesso à Informação e suas premissas
Vamos explicar alguns pontos fundamentais da LAI. Exemplos: Quais informações básicas devem estar disponibilizadas no portal de transparência? Quais são os requisitos funcionais previstos na LAI para os portais de transparência? O que são formatos abertos
Vamos explicar o que são formatos abertos de dados e diferenciá-los de formatos não abertos. O que é o formato CSV e como utilizá-lo
Vamos explicar o conceito de arquivos CSV. Por que precisamos utilizá-los? Quais são suas vantagens e aplicações? AULA 2: dia 26/07/2017 às 15:00 GMT -3 Openspending Next e Para Onde Foi o Meu Dinheiro
Vamos explicar as diferenças entre as duas plataformas e especificar como os dados devem ser consolidados e disponibilizados para que eles possam estar no Para Onde Foi o Meu Dinheiro. AULA 3: dia 02/08/2017 às 15:00 GMT -3 Como fazer upload de CSVs no OpenSpending Next
Vamos ensinar a utilizar a plataforma do OpenSpending Next compreendendo mapeamento completo dos CSVs e construção de visualizações. Flattr this!

Rethinking data literacy: how useful is your 2-day training?

Cédric Lombion - July 14, 2017 in research, training

As of July 2017, School of Data’s network includes 14 organisations around the world which collectively participate to organise hundreds of data literacy events every year. The success of this network-based strategy did not come naturally: we had to rethink and move away from our MOOC-like strategy in 2013 in order to be more relevant to the journalists and civil society organisations we intend to reach. In 2016 we did the same for our actual events.

The downside of short-term events

Prominent civic tech members have long complained about the ineffectiveness of hackathons to build long-lasting solutions for the problems they intended to tackle. Yet various reasons have kept the hackathon popular: it’s short-term, can produce decent-looking prototypes, and is well-known even beyond civic tech circles. The above stays true for the data literacy movement and its most common short-term events: meetups, data and drinks, one-day trainings, two-day workshops… they’re easy to run, fund and promote: what’s not to love? Well, we’ve never really been satisfied with the outcomes we saw of these events, especially for our flagship programme, the Fellowship, which we monitor very closely and aim to improve every year. Following several rounds of surveys and interviews with members of the School of Data network, we were able to pinpoint the issue: our expectations and the actual value of these events are mismatched, leading us not to take critical actions that would multiply the value of these events.

The Data Literacy Activity Matrix

To clarify our findings, we put the most common interventions (not all of them are events, strictly speaking) in a matrix, highlighting our key finding that duration is a crucial variable. And this makes sense for several reasons:
  • Fewer people can participate in a longer event, but those who can are generally more committed to the event’s goals

  • Longer events have much more time to develop their content and explore the nuances of it
  • Especially in the field of data literacy, which is focused on capacity building, time and repetition are key to positive outcomes
Data Literacy Activity Matrix (the categories used to group event formats are based on our current thinking of what makes a data literacy leader: it underpins the design of our Fellowship programme.)

Useful for what?

The matrix allowed us to think critically about the added value of each subcategory of intervention. What is the effective impact of an organisation doing mostly short-term training events compared to another one focusing on long-term content creation? Drawing again from the interviews we’ve done and some analysis of the rare post-intervention surveys and reports we could access (another weakness of the field), we came to the following conclusions:
  • very short-term and short-term activities are mostly valuable for awareness-raising and community-building.

  • real skill-building happens through medium to long-term interventions
  • content creation is best focused on supporting skill-building interventions and data-driven projects (rather than hoping that people come to your content and learn by themselves)
  • data-driven projects (run in collaboration with your beneficiaries) are the ones creating the clearest impact (but not necessarily the longest lasting).
Data Literacy Matrix - Value Added It is important, though, not to set short-term and long-term interventions in opposition. Not only can the difference be fuzzy (a long term intervention can be a series of regular, linked, short term events, for example) but both play roles of critical importance: who is going to apply to a data training if people are not aware of the importance of data? Conversely, recognising the specific added value of each intervention requires also to act in consequence: we advise against organising short-term events without establishing a community engagement strategy to sustain the event’s momentum. In hindsight, all of the above may sound obvious. But it mostly is relevant from the perspective of the beneficiary. Coming from the point of the view of the organisation running a data literacy programme, the benefit/cost is defined differently. For example, short-term interventions are a great way to find one’s audience, get new trainers to find their voice, and generate press cheaply. Meanwhile, long-term interventions are costly and their outcomes are harder to measure: is it really worth it to focus on training only 10 people for several months, when the same financial investment can bring hundreds of people to one-day workshops? Even when the organisation can see the benefits, their funders may not. In a field where sustainability is still a complicated issue many organisations face, long-term actions are not a priority.

Next steps

School of Data has taken steps to apply these learnings to its programmes.
  • The Curriculum programme, which initially focused on the production and maintenance of online content available on our website has been expanded to include offline trainings during our annual event, the Summer Camp, and online skillshares throughout the year;

  • Our recommendations to members regarding their interventions systematically refer to the data literacy matrix in order for them to understand the added value of their work;
  • Our Data Expert programme has been designed to include both data-driven project work and medium-term training of beneficiaries, differentiating it further from straightforward consultancy work.
We have also identified three directions in which we can research this topic further:
  • Mapping existing interventions: the number, variety and quality of data literacy interventions is increasing every year, but so far no effort has been made to map them, in order to identify the strengths and gaps of the field.
  • Investigating individual subgroups: the matrix is a good starting point for interrogating best practices and concrete outcomes in each of the subgroups, in order to provide more granular recommendations to the actors of the field and the designing of new intervention models.
  • Exploring thematic relevance: the audience, goals and constraints of, say, data journalism interventions, differ substantially from those of the interventions undertaken within the extractives data community. Further research would be useful to see how they differ to develop topic-relevant recommendations.
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Music in the Margins: The Funeral of Reynard the Fox (13th century)

Adam Green - July 13, 2017 in animals, folklore, fox, manuscripts, medieval, middle ages, renard, reynard, reynard the fox

A motley crew of anthropomorphic animals found adorning the lower margins of a finely illuminated book of hours produced in late thirteenth-century England.