Opendata.ch/2019 Forum: Rück- und Ausblick

- August 19, 2019 in Allgemein, Bern, Daten, event

Wir haben das Opendata.ch/2019 Forum am 4. Juli in Bern-Wankdorf im Format einer “Unconference” durchgeführt. Das Format hat es uns ermöglicht, vielfältige Informationen von unseren Teilnehmenden zu erhalten.

Interessen, Erfahrungen und Feedbacks

106 Teilnehmende (von insgesamt ~170) haben uns am Forumsende ihren Teilnehmerbadge mit Informationen über ihre Interessen und Erfahrungen sowie mit ihren Feedbacks zum Forum abgegeben:
  • 63 Teilnehmende haben uns mitgeteilt, woran sie heute interessiert waren.
  • 70 Teilnehmende haben uns mitgeteilt, womit sie Erfahrung haben.
  • 92 Teilnehmende haben uns mitgeteilt, was ihnen heute gefallen hat.
  • 80 Teilnehmende haben uns mitgeteilt, was ihnen heute gefehlt hat.
Diese Informationen haben wir als Daten dokumentiert und stellen sie unter einer offenen Lizenz zur freien Wiederverwendung zur Verfügung: https://github.com/OpendataCH/opendatach-stats – Wir freuen uns über weitere Analysen und Feedbacks. Selbst haben wir die folgenden Analysen erstellt.

Fragen, Bedürfnisse, Themen und Herausforderungen

Um das Forumsprogramm gemeinsam aufzusetzen, haben wir alle Teilnehmenden zu Beginn gebeten, auf einen Zettel zu schreiben, was sie heute mit anderen diskutieren möchten. 118 Zettel mit einer Frage, einem Bedürfnis, einem Thema oder einer Herausforderung haben den Weg zu uns zurückgefunden, nachdem sie von drei bis vier Teilnehmenden nach Interesse gewichtet worden sind.
  • 8 Zettel hatten eine Gesamtgewichtung von ’20’.
  • 8 Zettel hatten eine Gesamtgewichtung von ’19’.
  • 12 Zettel hatten eine Gesamtgewichtung von ’18’.
  • 12 Zettel hatten eine Gesamtgewichtung von ’17’.
  • 19 Zettel hatten eine Gesamtgewichtung von ’16’.
  • 15 Zettel hatten eine Gesamtgewichtung von ’15’.
  • 13 Zettel hatten eine Gesamtgewichtung von ’14’.
  • 8 Zettel hatten eine Gesamtgewichtung von ’13’.
  • 6 Zettel hatten eine Gesamtgewichtung von ’12’.
  • Rest: 17 Zettel mit einer Gesamtgewichtung von ’11’ und tiefer.
Zu den 47 Fragen, Bedürfnisse, Themen oder Herausforderungen mit den höchsten Gewichtungen haben am Forum Workshops stattgefunden. Auch diese Informationen haben wir als Daten dokumentiert und stellen sie unter einer offenen Lizenz zur freien Wiederverwendung zur Verfügung: https://github.com/OpendataCH/opendatach-stats Selbst haben wir folgende Analysen erstellt.

Eine Sprachwolke aus allen Bedürfnissen

Unsere nächsten Schritte

Basierend auf unseren Analysen haben wir reflektiert, wie stark wir als Opendata.ch Verein die Kernbedürfnisse unserer Community bereits abdecken. Und in welchen Bereichen der grösste Handlungsbedarf besteht. Vier Handlungsbereiche haben sich herauskristallisiert, die wir in Zukunft stärker behandeln wollen:
  • Daten befreien
  • Datenschutz
  • Datenqualität
  • Datennutzung
Bemerkenswert ist die starke Präsenz des Thema Datenschutz. Die Beziehung zwischen Datenschutz und Offenheit müssen wir zusammen mit unserer Community besser verständlich machen, um sowohl den Datenschutz wie die Bedeutung und Publikation offener Daten zu stärken und zu fördern. Die ersten Massnahmen und Verantwortlichkeiten zu den vier Handlungsfeldern haben in unserer Vorstandssitzung vom 5. August definiert:
  • Daten befreien: Aktive Politik, Forderungen, Hilfsangebote
  • Datenschutz: Positionierung, allenfalls Lobbying, Hilfestellungen
  • Datenqualität: Aktive Politik, Forderungen, Hilfsangebote
  • Datennutzung: Beispielnutzungen, Unterstützung für Nutzungen
Zweitens haben wir beschlossen, eine Zusammenfassung der gewonnenen Erkenntnisse mit fünf Kernforderungen an die auf Bundesebene mit der Open Government Data Strategie 2019-2023 betrauten Stellen beim EDI sowie BFS zu senden. Dieser Brief wurde diese Woche verschickt.

Engagiere Dich für die Ziele des Forums

Wenn du eines der oben aufgelisteten Handlungsfelder mitanpacken oder eine weitere Aktivität lancieren möchtest, stehen wir und unsere Community dir gerne zur Seite. Das Opendata.ch/2019 Forum hat die Bedürfnisse, Herausforderungen und Chancen von offenen Daten in der Schweiz transparent gemacht. Und es hat sich klar gezeigt: mit keiner Frage, keinem Bedürfnis, keinem Thema ist jemand alleine. Zusammen können wir Klärung schaffen und Hindernisse lösen. Um euch mit denjenigen Personen zu verbinden, welche die gleichen Interessen und die Ambition haben, aktiv tätig zu werden, bitten wir, uns via info@opendata.ch euer Interesse mitzuteilen. So können wir euch mit Gleichgesinnten verbinden und auf Wunsch eine Arbeitsgruppe für euch aufsetzen.

Visuelle Erinnerungen

OK Somalia: Data Literacy Training Program

- August 19, 2019 in data literacy, OK Somalia, somalia

In recent years Data Literacy has become a global issue and many data literacy initiatives have been documented throughout the world, particularly in the field of Higher Education. Open Knowledge Somalia introduces an initiative for Data Literacy to assist researchers, data journalists, scholars, librarians, and other professionals. This initiative intends to enhance and improve soft skills and information literacy of the Somali community, as well as bring to light homemade research publications. This program will accommodate students, librarians and other professionals from different disciplines who are working on research projects or academic publications. The beneficiaries will be acquainted with open data and open access and how to utilize it in their work. They will acquire information and resources in their disciplines, use different search tools effectively.

The Training 

Our first training was held on the 14th of August. The 1st session of the training was mainly discussed on the understanding of data, data gathering methods,  the available data on the web and data validation. In the 2nd session the topics discussed included data analysis, data visualization, selecting a visualization method, design for visualizing data and storytelling with data.  The participants who mostly are in the field of using data showed how is important to their daily work. We learned that upskilling of data usage is essential for the improvement of the creativity of the social workers, researchers, and innovators.  

The rise of MyData in Japan and discussions around personal data use

- August 14, 2019 in japan, mydata, OK Japan, personal-data

On May 15, 2019, MyData Japan conference was held in Tokyo, co-organized by Open Knowledge Japan and MyData Japan. Open Knowledge Japan has been organizing MyData Japan conferences for the past 3 times (2017, 2018, and 2019), and the movement has been growing steadily. Interests from the corporate sector has been the strongest, with 22 companies providing support for the conference. Another sign of the growth is the fact that this year, the conference is co-organized for the first time with MyData Japan, a newly incorporated entity dedicated to the advancement of MyData agendas in Japan. Open Knowledge Japan’s activities and network has led to a number of projects and organizations, including Open Spending Japan and Code 4 Japan. MyData Japan is probably the latest of such spin-offs, involving some of the active OK Japan members. 

© 2019 MyDataJapan.org & MyData.org, from: https://mydatajapan.org/events/mydata-japan-2019.html, license: CC-BY 4.0.

Like the previous two times, it featured a wide variety of speakers from civic, academic, and corporate sectors, including some guests from abroad. The topics discussed included personal data protection, democracy and data, ID and authentication, system architecture for the data reuse, AI and ethics of data use, overseas policy developments, data portability, and many others. If I pick one, an open source software for personal data store (PDS), Personium, presented by its project lead Mr. Shimono. He envisioned the loose federation of PDS’ connecting individual users of the software. In general, different speakers had different views on the degree to which data should be centrally hosted and/or managed by a trusted agent or fiduciary.  Behind the growth of the movement in Japan is the increasing awareness of the importance of data reuse and data protection. The Japanese government has been exploring ways to promote data reuse, based on its 2016 version of “Japan Revitalization Strategy,” a comprehensive economic growth strategy package. Japanese government has funded some pilot projects, and developed a guideline for certification of such entity. The issue was put forth for a part of the G20 meetings with the concept of Data Free Flow with Trust (DFFT). More specifically, the mechanism for better flow of data is conceived as information bank lately. The idea is somewhat close to that of data trust discussed in the UK and other countries. Individuals can decide to deposit information to a trusted entity, an information bank, which in turn will provide the data to a third party and return a portion of economic gains back to the individuals. An industry association picked up the task of certification of information banks. The extent it will succeed is yet to be seen, but Japan has at least seen the expectation leading to a formation of an institution. The MyData conference has discussed the concept of information bank in the past, and this conference happened right around the time the information bank becomes a reality.  Lately Japanese news media and social media discussed some services making potentially inappropriate use of personal data. One is Yahoo! Japan’s credit score service, providing credit scores of their users to various businesses, based on users’ transaction records (such as missed payments and cancellation rate of restaurant reservations) and other personal data. Questions raised on that service by various experts and concerned citizens included whether proper consent was obtained prior to the service, and if Yahoo! Japan users (data subjects) deserved to know what their score was. The company quickly responded by adding explanations to its website addressing users. Another interesting case is the rating of job seekers by Recruit Career, whose platform Rikunabi is one of the largest in Japan. The rating was specifically about the estimated chance of job applicants to decline the non-final job offer from a specific company. The platform presumably had data on the applicant’s browsing history, contacting with other companies, and possibly other data. The Recruit Career admitted that they used personal data of nearly 8,000 users inappropriately, and scrapped the service. Some government investigation has started into the matter. While Open Knowledge Japan has not issued any official comments on any of these, it’s chair commented critically on various aspects, emphasizing corporate responsibility to gain proper understanding from the individuals. 

(photo by Mitya Ivanov from Unsplash)

Overall, OK Japan and its members have been actively involved in the discussions on the policies and practices of personal data use, on how to properly communicate with individuals, how best to handle data, and so on, which are still very much actively ongoing issues. 

Open Knowledge and MyData – same roots, shared values

- August 8, 2019 in Featured, finland, mydata, network, personal-data

The origins of MyData can be traced back to the Open Knowledge Festival held in Finland in 2012. There, a small group of people gathered in a breakout session to discuss what ought to be done with the kind of data that cannot be made publicly available and entirely open, namely personal data. Over the years, more and more people who had similar ideas about personal data converged and found each other around the globe. Finally, in 2016, a conference entitled MyData brought together thinkers and doers who shared a vision of a human-centric paradigm for personal data and the community became aware of itself. The MyData movement, which has since gathered momentum and grown into an international community of hundreds of people and organisations, shares many of its most fundamental values with the open movement from which it has spun off. Openness and transparency in collection, processing, and use of personal data; ethical and socially beneficial use of data; cross-sectoral collaboration; and democratic values are all legacies of the open roots of MyData and hard-wired into the movement itself. The MyData movement was sustained originally through annual conferences held in Helsinki and attended by data professionals in their hundreds. These were made possible by the support of the Finnish chapter of Open Knowledge, who acted as their main organiser. As the years passed and the movement matured, in the autumn of 2018, the movement formalised into its own organisation, MyData Global. Headquartered in Finland, the organisation’s international staff of six, led by general manager Teemu Ropponen, now facilitate the growing community with local hubs in over 20 locations on six continents, a fourth Helsinki-based conference in September 2019, and the continued efforts of the movement to bring about positive change in the way personal data is used globally. The MyData 2019 Conference will attract some 800-1000 people from around the world. It is an associated event of Finland’s EU Presidency organised in Wanha Satama in central Helsinki. The conference provides three days of interactive sessions, networking opportunities and inspiration that will contribute to rebuilding trust for a human-centred data economy. Over 100 speakers will be presenting in the following tracks: Making Identity Work, Ecosystems and Operators, Governance, Cities, Empowerment through Agency, Crossing the Chasm, MyAI, Health, Design and more! The Next Generation Internet Forum is organised at the opening day of MyData 2019. 

Join MyData 2019 conference with a special discount code!

If you want to learn more about MyData, join the MyData 2019 conference on 25-27 September 2019. As we love making friends, we would like to offer you a discount code of 10% for business and discounted ticket. Use MyDataFriend and claim your ticket now via mydata2019.org/tickets. The normal price tickets are valid until 1 September.

Open Data und die Wahlen

- August 7, 2019 in Bern, Zürich

Im Oktober sind Wahlen, die Schweiz gibt sich ein neues Parlament. Dieses wird sich nicht zuletzt um offene Daten, um Transparenz und Innovation zu kümmern haben. Es stellt sich entsprechend die Frage: wen wählen für mehr Open Data? Opendata.ch empfiehlt seine beiden Mitgründer und Vorstandsmitglieder, Matthias Stürmer und Hannes Gassert.
Hannes Gassert tritt an im Kanton Zürich, für die SP. Als erfolgreicher digitaler Unternehmer an der Schnittstelle von Technologie, Gesellschaft und Kultur, als Stiftungsrat von Pro Helvetia oder als im Vorstand der Programmierschule für Geflüchtete Powercoders und als politischer Newcomer setzt er sich ein dafür, dass die technische Entwicklung zu echtem, menschlichem Fortschritt wird für alle. Mehr zu seinen Ideen und seinem Engagement: https://gassert.ch.

 

Matthias Stürmer
Matthias Stürmer tritt an im Kanton Bern, für die EVP. Als Forscher an der Universität Bern, als Berner Stadtrat, als Präsident des Digital Impact Networks: sein Engagement gilt der digitalen Nachhaltigkeit. Matthias gehört mit Parldigi zu den Pionieren der Digitalpolitik in der Schweiz gilt als der Förderer von Open Source schlechthin. Matthias weiss: IT-Politik ist Standortpolitik — auch, aber nicht nur. Mehr zu Matthias und seinem Einsatz: http://stürmer.ch.

 

Beide stehen ein für Open Data, für “open by default”. Sprich für eine aktive Öffnung und wirtschaftlich wie gesellschaftlich produktive Nutzung von Sachdaten — und einen starken Schutz von Personendaten. Opendata.ch empfiehlt Stürmer wie Gassert voll zu unterstützen: zwei mal auf jede Liste! Unabhängig von den Wahlen wird sich Opendata.ch weiter aktiv einbringen für eine starke, offene und faire Datenpolitik, beim Bund, den Kantonen und Gemeinden. Machen Sie mit, werden Sie heute noch Mitglied! Und in jedem Fall: bitte gehen Sie am 20. Oktober wählen!

‘Apagão’ de dados é risco para toda a sociedade: queremos mais transparência e respeito à ciência

- August 5, 2019 in Dados Abertos, Destaque, Open Knowledge Brasil

As entidades abaixo-assinadas acompanham com preocupação a tendência do atual governo de contestar, sem base científica, dados produzidos por agências do próprio governo e institutos de pesquisa de sólida reputação. Também alertam para os riscos da interrupção de estudos científicos e mudanças em metodologias há anos aplicadas para apoiar políticas de interesse público, como as de preservação ambiental e de combate ao desmatamento. A notícia da última sexta-feira (2 de agosto) da exoneração do diretor do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais – INPE, Ricardo Galvão, vem na esteira de uma série de outras ações direcionadas a institutos nos últimos meses, como IBGE, Ibama e Inep. Em vez de agir sobre a realidade, o governo prefere atacar os dados que a descrevem, demonstrando pouco apreço por estudos científicos e evidências que, na verdade, deveriam embasar as políticas públicas. Os dados do INPE que foram alvo de questionamento vêm sendo tornados públicos ativamente na plataforma Terra Brasilis, lançada pelo instituto em 2018 para reunir dados de dois importantes sistemas de monitoramento da vegetação nativa: o PRODES e o DETER. A divulgação desses dados indicava um aumento do desmatamento no país, o que gerou desconforto em setores do governo. O acesso aos dados públicos é fundamental para que a sociedade possa observar a realidade, realizar análises independentes sobre ações do governo e exercer o controle social para que os interesses públicos sejam defendidos. O acesso à informação pública está previsto na Constituição brasileira e regulamentado pela Lei Federal nº 12.527/2011 (Lei de Acesso à Informação Pública – LAI). Por isso, dados públicos não devem ser vistos como instrumento publicitário, ou seja, usados apenas quando indicam situações favoráveis ou quando comprovam posições pré-estabelecidas. O compromisso de disponibilização de dados públicos completos, atuais e acessíveis é fundamental para que as discussões e decisões sobre políticas públicas sejam alicerçadas em fatos, evidências e participação social. Além disso, o Brasil aderiu a compromissos internacionais na área de governo aberto, propondo-se a ampliar a informação disponível sobre atividades governamentais e implementar os mais altos padrões de integridade profissional em toda a administração pública. As recentes intervenções em institutos que coletam e disponibilizam dados cruciais para accountability e controle social são contrários a essas diretrizes, além de opostos a princípios constitucionais de moralidade, impessoalidade, publicidade e eficiência. Interromper a divulgação de dados que permitem o acompanhamento de outras obrigações internacionais, como o Acordo de Paris e os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável, traz impactos negativos na imagem do Brasil, no âmbito das relações internacionais. Os dados resultantes do trabalho de institutos de pesquisa e produção científica como o INPE não pertencem a um governo ou administração vigente, mas a toda a população brasileira. As organizações que assinam esta carta ressaltam a importância de que a produção e publicação dos dados seja mantida e fortalecida com os insumos necessários. Qualquer mudança metodológica na forma de coleta ou análise desses dados deve ser devidamente esclarecida e debatida com a sociedade civil, tratada com transparência e de acordo com os princípios de governo aberto e dos acordos internacionais. Assinam: Abraço Guarapiranga Agenda Pública ARTIGO 19 BRASIL Associação Brasileira de Jornalismo Investigativo (Abraji) Espaço de Formação Assessoria e Documentação Greenpeace Brasil Instituto Centro de Vida Instituto Cidade Democrática Instituto Construção Instituto de Governo Aberto Instituto de Manejo e Certificação Florestal e Agrícola (IMAFLORA) Instituto Ethos de Empresas e Responsabilidade Social Observatório do Código Florestal (OCF) Open Knowledge Brasil (OKBr) Programa Cidades Sustentáveis Rede GTA – Grupo de Trabalho Amazônico Rede pela Transparência e Participação Social (RETPS) Transparência Brasil Flattr this!

Fernanda Campagnucci assume direção geral da Open Knowledge Brasil

- August 1, 2019 in Destaque, Open Knowledge Brasil

A partir do mês de agosto, a Open Knowledge Brasil está sob novo comando: Fernanda Campagnucci assume a direção das atividades da organização em todas as suas frentes. A jornalista chega para o lugar ocupado desde julho de 2017 por Natália Mazotte, que deixa a direção para se tornar JSK Fellow na Universidade de Stanford, na Califórnia. Natália passará a compor o Conselho Deliberativo da Open Knowledge. Fernanda atuou como gestora pública na Prefeitura de São Paulo pelos últimos 6 anos, onde foi responsável pela política municipal de transparência, abertura de dados e integridade na Controladoria Geral do Município. Além disso, Campagnucci também liderou diversos projetos na área de tecnologia, inovação e governo aberto na Secretaria Municipal de Educação. “É uma honra poder dar continuidade ao trabalho da OKBR e contribuir para consolidar e ampliar os projetos já iniciados. Em um cenário de ameaças a princípios democráticos que vivemos no Brasil e no mundo, é cada vez mais importante o fortalecimento dessa rede que aposta na transparência e nas tecnologias abertas e colaborativas para qualificar o debate e defender direitos fundamentais”, afirmou Fernanda. A nova diretora tem entre os principais objetivos a ampliação do alcance da Escola de Dados, visando a formação de ainda mais profissionais capacitados a atuar na área, e a exploração do Programa de Inovação Cívica, onde estão projetos como a Operação Serenata de Amor. Além disso, Fernanda frisa que é importante manter o trabalho de articulações com a sociedade civil, auxiliando na abertura do governo no país. “A Fernanda Campagnucci tem uma trajetória incrível dedicada a fortalecer o acesso ao conhecimento e à informação pública. A entrada dela na direção executiva da Open Knowledge Brasil nos orgulha e certamente será um novo marco no caminho que temos trilhado para consolidar a organização como referência no cenário de governo aberto e tecnologias cívicas no país”, destacou Natália Mazotte. Seja bem-vinda, Fernanda. Flattr this!

Why greater tax transparency is needed to help fix the broken global tax system

- July 30, 2019 in Open Knowledge

Public CBCR by Financial Transparency Coalition is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 3.0

The international tax system is broken and in need of urgent updating to address issues which allow globalised businesses to move their profits and intellectual property around the world, often to locations where they pay the least tax. Indeed some economists estimate that “close to 40% of multinational profits are shifted to tax havens globally each year” with many of the world’s most important tax havens being connected to the UK. The digital services taxes being proposed by countries such as France and the UK arise from frustrations with the slow pace of progress towards an internationally-agreed solution.  Those processes may continue to be held back by reactions from the US – where many of the largest digital businesses originate – or countries such as Ireland which corporations like Facebook may have chosen as their European base for beneficial tax reasons. The EU has so far failed to pass its own legislation to better tax digital businesses although the incoming president of the European Commission recently stated that the EU must act by the end of 2020 if no other international solution is agreed.  The OECD is currently in discussions about a new programme of work to “develop a consensus solution to the tax challenges arising from the digitalisation of the economy. This work is expected to conclude by the end of 2020 and establish a follow-up to their anti tax avoidance Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project. However the BEPS process has been criticised as being biased towards rich countries prompting calls – from the G77 coalition of developing nations, China and others, most recently Norway – for the United Nations to set up a UN tax body to create a truly global solution to modern taxation. Tech giants such as Google, Amazon and Facebook may be some of the most high-profile examples of companies using complicated tax structuring that the public is aware of – thanks to years of media reporting and targeted campaigning – but the problem is systemic. Tax justice advocates – such as those that the Open Knowledge Foundation helped convene for our Open Data for Tax Justice project – argue that the world’s tax systems need to be fundamentally restructured and have also pushed for a variety of measures sometimes summed up as the ABCs of tax transparency. A stands for automatic exchange of information where countries can more easily share tax data on individuals or businesses. B stands for beneficial ownership where the issue of opaque company ownership is addressed by publishing public registers of who owns or runs companies and trusts. C stands for country-by-country reporting where corporations would be required to publish details about the tax they pay, people they employ and profits they make in each country where they operate to build up a better picture of their activities. Taken together, it is believed that such transparency measures would shine a light on the insalubrious practices currently being used by multinational corporations in order to help the push to crack down on abuses as exposed by investigations such as the Mauritius Leaks, Paradise Papers and Panama Papers. The BEPS process has seen pushed automatic exchange of information forwards and many countries are joining the drive for beneficial ownership transparency (see the OpenOwnership project for more). There are also steps being taken towards making country-by-country reporting public, but progress is slow.  Two years after the EU voted in favour of publishing public country-by-country reporting information as open data for all large corporations operating in Europe, the issue remains stuck in trilogue discussions at the EU Council. Meanwhile others are taking on the issue including international accounting standards setters and civil society efforts such as the Fair Tax Mark. We believe that a lack of transparency in current country-by-country reporting standards will fail to build confidence in the treatment of corporations, missing an important opportunity to build tax morale and wider public support for tax compliance.  Research has shown how restricting access to country-by-country reporting exacerbates global inequalities in taxing rights while civil society organisations have set out why public country-by-country reporting is a must for large multinationals to create an “effective deterrent of aggressive tax avoidance and profit shifting”. We urge all policymakers working on tax issues to prioritise increased tax transparency as an essential strand of modernising the global taxation system as a way to improve public trust and ensure corporate compliance.

Brilliant Visions: Peyote among the Aesthetes

- July 25, 2019 in aesthetes, Arthur Symons, drugs, early use of mescaline, early use of peyote, early use of psychedelics, Featured Articles, Havelock ellis, mescaline, peyote, psychedelics, Science & Medicine, Silas Weir Mitchell

Used by the indigenous peoples of the Americas for millennia, it was only in the last decade of the 19th century that the powerful effects of mescaline began to be systematically explored by curious non-indigenous Americans and Europeans. Mike Jay looks at one such pioneer Havelock Ellis who, along with his small circle of fellow artists and writers, documented in wonderful detail his psychedelic experiences.

The Golfer’s Rubáiyát and other 20th-Century Parodies

- July 24, 2019 in Edward FitzGerald, golf, metaphysics, parody, The Rubáiyát, The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám

The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám has inspired parodies by cat lovers and car lovers. But it seems to have found a special place in the hearts of golfers.