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Data Sharing: Poor Status Quo in Economics

- March 5, 2013 in data sharing, economics, EDaWaX, External Projects, Featured

hare_c_flickrThis article is cross-posted from the blog of the European Data Watch Extended Project In the context of our research project EDaWaX a new research paper has been published by Patrick Andreoli-Versbach (International Max Planck Research School for Competition and Innovation (IMPRS-CI), LMU Munich, Munich Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship Research (MCIER)) and Frank Mueller-Langer(Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property and Competition Law, IMPRS-CI, MCIER). The paper analyzes the data sharing behavior of 488 randomly chosen empirical economists. More specifically, the researchers under study were chosen uniformly across the top 100 economics departments and the top 50 business schools and randomly within the respective institution. Economics departments were chosen using the Shanghai Ranking 2011 in Economics and Business and business schools were chosen using the Financial Times Global MBA Ranking 2011. In a short description of their paper, Andreoli-Versbach and Mueller-Langer stated:
Data sharing is an essential feature for replication, self-correction and subsequent research. While most researchers principally embrace the idea of replicability and self-correction in science associated with data sharing, the wide majority of empirical work cannot be replicated as data and codes are not fully available. We provide evidence for the status quo in economics with respect to data sharing using a unique data set with 488 hand-collected observations randomly taken from researchers’ academic webpages. Out of the sample, 435 researchers (89.14%) neither have a data&code section nor indicate whether and where their data is available. We find that 8.81% of researchers share some of their data whereas only 2.05% fully share. We run an ordered probit regression to relate the decision of researchers to share to their observable characteristics. We find that three predictors are positive and significant across specifications: being full professor, working at a higher-ranked institution and personal attitudes towards sharing as indicated by sharing other material such as lecture slides. Andreoli Versbach, Patrick and Frank Mueller-Langer (2013), Open Access to Data: An Ideal Professed but Not Practised, RatSWD Working Paper Series No. 215.
In my opinion this paper is a valuable contribution to the discussion about data sharing incentives and practices in economics. It shows that there is still a long way to go to establish data sharing in this scientific discipline. Interestingly, the paper also suggests that the career concerns of young researchers might play a role in the decision to share data. Data sharing creates competition as it permits other researchers to use a data set before its creator can fully exploit it in further research. As an additional publication is arguably more valuable in terms of career concerns for (untenured) junior scholars than for full professors, it is not surprising that full professors share their data more frequently. This finding suggests that optimal mechanisms to incentivize data sharing may depend on the status of researchers. The full paper is available at SSRN. Picture: carlos maya (c!) / flickr.com

Dutch PhD-workshop on research design, open access and open data

- February 1, 2013 in Economic Publishing, EDaWaX, External Projects, Featured, Open Access, Open Data, Open Economics, research fraud

This blog post is written by Esther Hoorn, Copyright Librarian, University of Groningen, the Netherlands. If Roald Dahl were still alive, he would certainly be tempted to write a book about the Dutch social psychologist Diederik Stapel. For not only did he make up the research data to support his conclusions, but also he ate all the M&M’s, which he bought with public money for interviews with fictitious pupils in fictitious high schools. In the Netherlands the research fraud by Stapel was a catalyst to bring attention to the issue of research integrity and availability of research data. A new generation of researchers needs to be aware of the policy on sharing research data by the Dutch research funder NWO, the EU policy and the services of DANS, the Dutch Data archiving and networked services. In the near future, a data management plan will be required in every research proposal.

Verifiability

For some time now the library at the University of Groningen is organizing workshops for PhDs to raise awareness on the shift towards Open Access. Open Access and copyright are the main themes. The question also to address verifiability of research data came from SOM, the Research Institute of the Faculty of Economics and Business. The workshop is given as part of the course Research Design of the PhD program. The blogpost Research data management in economic journals proved to be very useful to get an overview of the related issues in this field.

Open Access

As we often see, Open Access was a new issue to most of the students. Because the library buys licenses the students don’t perceive a problem with access to research journals. Moreover, they are not aware of the big sums that the universities at present pay to finance access exclusively for their own staff and students. Once they understand the issue there is a strong interest. Some see a parallel with innovative distribution models for music. The PhDs come from all over the world. And more and more Open Access is addressed in every country of the world. One PhD from Indonesia mentioned that the Indonesian government requires his dissertation to be available through the national Open Access repository. Chinese students were surprised by availability of information on Open Access in China.

Assignment

The students prepared an assignment with some questions on Open Access and sharing research data. The first question still is on the impact factor of the journals in which they intend to publish. The questions brought the discussion to article level metrics and alternative ways to organize the peer review of Open Access journals.

Will availability of research data stimulate open access?

Example of the Open Access journal Economics

The blogpost Research data management in economic journals presents the results of the German project EdaWax, European Data Watch Extended. An important result of the survey points at the role of association and university presses. Especially it appears that many journals followed the data availability policy of the American Economic Association.
[quote] We found out that mainly university or association presses have high to very high percentages of journals owning data availability policies while the major scientific publishers stayed below 20%.

Out of the 29 journals with data availability policies, 10 used initially the data availability policy implemented by the American Economic Review (AER). These journals either used exactly the same policy or a slightly modified version.

For students it is assuring to see how associations take up their role to address this issue. An example of an Open Access journal that adopted the AER policy is Economics. And yes, this journal does have an impact factor in the Social Science Citation Index and also the possibility to archive the datasets in the Dataverse Network.

Re-use of research data for peer review

One of the students suggested that the public availability of research data (instead or merely research findings) may lead to innovative forms of review. This may facilitate a further shift towards Open Access. With access to underlying research data and methodologies used, scientists may be in a better position to evaluate the quality of the research conducted by peers. The typical quality label given by top and very good journals may then become less relevant, over time. It was also discussed that journals may not publish a certain numbers of papers in a volume released e.g. four times a year, but rather as qualifying papers are available for publication throughout the year. Another point raised was that a substantial change in the existing publication mechanics will likely require either top journals or top business schools to lead the way, whereas associations of leading scientists in a certain field may also play an important role in such conversion.