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Publishing Budget and Spending Open Data

- April 29, 2019 in Uncategorized

This blog was written by Lorena Rivero del Paso (GIFT) and Oscar Montiel (Open Knowledge International) and was originally posted on the GIFT blog.

Increasingly, we see examples where lack of transparency and accountability from governments affects trust. Being able to follow public money flows is an important step to recover trust and aim towards more effective governance of public funds. Despite this, according to the most recent edition of the Open Data Barometer, the number of national governments that publish their budget and spending reports and figures as data isn’t growing consistently.

Considering the lack of progress in such publication and the relevance of fiscal data, from Open Knowledge International (OKI) and Global Initiative for Fiscal Transparency (GIFT) we have partnered to support governments in the publication of budget and spending open data, through the Open Fiscal Data Package (OFDP). This specification allows publishers to structure their data in a way that makes its description and use as easy as possible and provides visualizations and developer tools for publishers and users with the OpenSpending platform.

As a follow up to the -Towards a schema for spending Open Data, Helpdesk included-blog post where you can read more in detail about the characteristics of the (OFDP), in this post we will guide you through, for a successful publication.

First: what information is expected in a budget/spending file?

Any budget and spending open dataset should have four basic components 1) fiscal year presented 2) budget classifications 3) source of funding and 4) amounts for each stage of the transaction. Additionally, the dataset can be complemented with other relevant data and classifications included in the Financial Management Information Systems (FMIS).

1) Period

  • Fiscal Year- The fiscal year is the framework in which the approved budget is executed. While some countries have already developed the annual budget within a multiyear perspective, through the preparation of medium-term fiscal and budget frameworks, these frameworks are usually established at a higher level of disaggregation than the annual budget and expenditures.

The dataset can include several past and future years according to data availability. For this, each fiscal year can be a separate dataset.

2) Budget classifications

Regarding the second component, budget classifications, we refer to those indicated in the Fiscal Transparency Code of the International Monetary Fund. Furthermore, for those countries who have progressed in incorporating program classification, it should be included as well. These are:

  • Administrative unit (government ministries/agencies and departments/divisions within agencies).
  • Economic type (“inputs” such as salaries, transfers, other non-salary current expenditures, capital spending) (following the international classification if available)
  • Functional and subfunctions (following the international classification if available)
  • Program/subprogram/activity/project; alternatively outcomes and/or outputs.

Some of these are cross-classifications, mainly in respect of the Program classification.

3) Source of funding

It serves to distinguish, in the financial statements, the origin of the domestically- financed expenditures (on-budget, extra-budgetary, counterpart fund), as well as from project aid financed expenditures.

4) Stages of the transaction

For the stage of the transaction, there is not a unique form of registration, but it is important to register clearly the type of data presented and which phase of the budget the user is looking at. The Expenditure Control: Key Features, Stages, and Actors[1] identify the next seven typical stages of the expenditure cycle, which should be considered for the dataset, according to the availability in the country:

  • Authorization of expenditure- A fundamental principle of public finance is that expenditure and revenue proposals must be legally authorized to ensure accountability.
  • Apportionment of authorization for specific periods and spending units- The purpose of apportionment is to prevent spending agencies from incurring obligations at a rate which would require the authorization of additional funds for the fiscal year in progress.
  • Reservation- Once the apportionment of expenditure authorization is made and the spending authority has been released, some countries’ Public Financial Management (PFM) systems include a stage at which funds are reserved for a specifically known expense but for which no contract has yet been issued. At this stage, there is no legal commitment, but it is known that the expense will be incurred during the budget year and, therefore, the reserved funds should not be used for other activities.
  • Commitment- The commitment stage is the point at which a potential future obligation to pay is established. A commitment occurs when a formal action, such as placing an order or awarding a contract, is taken that renders the government liable to pay at some time in the future when the order or contract is honoured by its counterpart.
  • Verification (or certification)- after goods have been delivered and/or services have been rendered by a supplier, an authorized officer within the spending unit concerned verifies their conformity with the contract or order, and that liability and due date of payment are recognized.
  • Payment order- Once checks are made to ensure that all previously stipulated controls have been performed and documented, a payment order is issued.
  • Payment- Once a payment order has been issued, payments are made through various instruments including checks, electronic funds transfer (EFT), and sometimes cash, in of a supplier or other recipient to discharge the liability. In line with internationally accepted good practice, the payment should be made through a Treasury Single Account (TSA) system- 

5) Additional data and classifications

  • Geographic classification-

A representation of which part of the country benefits from each of the government financial operations. This classification is difficult in most cases, so adaptations have taken the form of classifying by location of administrative units, taxpayers, recipients of government transfers, among others.

  • Investment projects-

Authorized public investment projects, including Public-Private Partnerships, if available. Data over these projects can be paired with geolocation by including its latitude and longitude. Furthermore, if more data is available in the Ministry of Finance systems, such as description or links cost-benefit analysis among others, we can analyze on a case to case basis.

  • Contracts-

Between 15 and 25 per cent of public expenditures are exercised through contracts. These data is useful data for complete traceability of the related part of the transactions. The number and detailed data of the procurement process and/or the awarded contract can be included as part of the file. If the Country has already implemented the Open Contracting Data Standard (OCDS), an additional column can be included with the Open Contacting ID (OCID), linking both data structures without the need for duplicating data (Learn more about the OCDS here). The information on contracts in a standardised form will also allow us to link beneficiaries of these contracts and where the money goes.

Second: Structure of the Dataset

Disaggregation

The classifications should be disaggregated to the lowest level available so users can do a more specific use of the data.

Codes and descriptions

All of the classifications mentioned in the section above should always include one column for the code and one for the description for each level of disaggregation as displayed in the example below. These fields will allow the users to know what bits of the budget the dataset refers to. A clear data structure will allow the users to understand the different levels of the budget, how the programs, projects, etc are built and how money is allocated to them in the different stages of the budget.

Having these IDs and descriptions clear, will also allow mapping to the specification in a way that will later make it easy to visualise and navigate the data set once it is uploaded to the Open Fiscal Data Package.

The following image exemplifies the structure of ID + Description of the different levels of economic classification.

Horizontal structure

After analyzing use cases of the dataset and overseeing users interact with different structures, for the stages of the transaction it has been defined that each stage should be structured in one column (the other option is one column for all stages and only one column with amounts).

Third: Extension of the file

It’s common for budget or spending reports to be PDF files directly from the data. This might be easy to read for a human, but it’s not very easy to process by a computer. This is why data uploaded to OpenSpending should be produced or saved in a comma separated value (CSV) file. A CSV is the simplest machine-readable file that requires no special software to be used, like XLS that requires Excel or similar programs. It’s very light and allows you to use software that your computer may already have to start working with it. A CSV can be managed with scripts but it’s also very friendly for beginners to navigate, filter and modify without specific knowledge about databases.

You can see an example of the data from Mexico’s Federal Government below.

We have also prepared a data template where you can see the classifications and other data that will ensure quality data being published.

Fourth: Uploading the dataset using OFDP?

There are two ways of getting your budget data into OpenSpending. Both are available to everyone and can be tried today. We will discuss the two options and then compare under which circumstances you can best use which approach.

1. Upload directly with OS Packager

If you have a budget file already available as a tabular file in CSV form, you have everything you need to start using the Packager. You just need to create an account hereand you will be able to start uploading the data. If you have already published data using CKAN or any other open data platform, you can link directly to the CSV and start working with that data.

The packager tool divides the publication task into 4 steps:

  1. Data upload
  2. Data mapping/description
  3. Metadata input
  4. Data use

Each of these steps will guide you and in the end, you will have a data package. That is, a CSV file with the fields you originally had, as well as a JSON file with the description of these fields, mapped to the specification. This can be directly used in the OpenSpending Viewer.

2. Set up an Open Spending pipeline

While moving towards a more timely and disaggregated publication that would in turn be more useful for the users, there are different kinds of needs than for one time publishers. For example, to publish time series of spending we need all years spending data merged into one dataset, with this the size of the complete dataset will also be bigger. In these cases of governments that have progressed to a more advanced publication, we can use a pipeline.

A pipeline is basically a set of instructions that we provide to map the data to the specification while keeping some of the nuances of our data. This process implies writing pieces of code to perform data processing and loading to selected endpoints. This option will give a more flexible publication but would require to define the best approach along with the Helpdesk.

Which option is best for you?

There is no unique answer to this, but there are a few questions that might help guide the initial decision to begin publishing using OpenSpending.

For example,

  • Has your government implemented a Financial Management Integrated System in which budget and spending are registered?
  • Are budget and spending data stored in different systems?
  • Is there any human intervention to consolidate the budget and/or spending data?
  • How often does the government present spending reports to the legislature? Does the system allow this periodic data extraction?
  • Does the country have historical data on budget and spending? How far in time is it available either in systems or in stored files?
  • Do you follow any standardised publication patterns at the moment?

If you’re interested in pushing for better publication, please contact us, we’re happy to help. Our Helpdesk can be reached at openspending-support@okfn.org.

 

 

 

[1] Pattanayal, Sailendra. Expenditure Control: Key Features, Stages, and Actors Prepared by Sailendra Pattanayak Fiscal Affairs Department. International Monetary Fund, 2016.

Offener Brief für Kostentransparenz zu Publikationskosten in der Wissenschaft

- June 30, 2016 in Uncategorized

Sehr geehrte Mitglieder des Wissenschaftsausschusses des Nationalrates,
sehr geehrter Herr Wissenschaftsminister,
sehr geehrter Herr Bundeskanzler, Wir vom Verein Open Knowledge Austria stehen für eine Welt, in der Wissen für alle frei zugänglich und verwendbar ist. In diesem Zusammenhang wollen wir Sie durch diesen offenen Brief auf ein international zur Zeit heiß debattiertes Problem in Wissenschaft und Forschung hinweisen: die mangelnde Kostentransparenz der durch Verlage vertriebenen wissenschaftlichen Ergebnisse. Wissenschaftliche Informationen werden in Form von Publikationen und Datenbanken zu einem überwiegenden Teil von öffentlich finanzierten Bibliotheken der Forschungsstätten angeschafft, und können nach Erwerb auch nur von Personen genutzt werden, die Angehörige der jeweiligen Institutionen sind. Der Vertrieb wissenschaftlicher Informationen liegt in der Hand einiger weniger kommerzieller Anbieter. Gemäß jüngster Zahlen aus Finnland verteilen sich schätzungsweise zwei Drittel der Bibliotheksbudgets für wissenschaftliche Informationsangebote mittlerweile auf fünf Anbieter, wobei der Trend von Akquisitionen und Fusionen der letzten Jahre eine weitere Marktkonzentration erwarten lässt. Durch dieses Oligopol sind einerseits rapide Preissteigerungen zu befürchten, andererseits, dass Wissensbestände, die mit öffentlichen Mitteln produziert wurden, von einigen wenigen kommerziellen Anbietern kontrolliert werden. Dies führt zu geringerer Innovation durch einen Mangel an Wettbewerb. Einer der zentralen Gründe dieser Entwicklung ist, dass sich diese Informationsanbieter eine Geheimhaltungsklausel für die Verträge mit den Bibliotheken vorbehalten. D.h. es kann nicht öffentlich gemacht werden, wie viel eine Bibliothek einem Informationsanbieter für ein bestimmtes Produkt zahlt. Das hebelt nicht nur das konstitutive marktwirtschaftliche Prinzip des fairen Wettbewerbs aus, sondern widerspricht auch dem Transparenzgebot für Leistungen, die überwiegend mit öffentlichen Mitteln erzeugt werden ! Nach einer Reihe von Einzelinitiativen in mehreren Ländern ist nun Finnland das erste Land, das systematisch alle Ausgaben von Bibliotheken an die jeweiligen Informationsanbieter offengelegt hat. Wir bitten Sie, diesem Beispiel zu folgen und den gesetzlichen Rahmen zu schaffen, der Kostentransparenz öffentlicher Mittel auch österreichischen Bibliotheken und Forschungsstätten ermöglicht. Nur so wird ein effizienter Umgang mit öffentlichen Mitteln möglich sein. Darüber hinaus erhalten auch kleinere Anbieter, auch aus Österreich, wieder faire Wettbewerbschancen. Wie man jüngsten Pressemeldungen entnehmen kann, möchten Bundesregierung und Nationalrat die Diskussion um ein Informationsfreiheitsgesetz wieder aufnehmen. Die Verabschiedung eines solchen, möglichst weitgehenden Gesetzes, das auch die Kostentransparenz für wissenschaftliche Informationen berücksichtigt, wird von der Open Knowledge Austria nachdrücklich unterstützt. Kostentransparenz ist eine notwendige aber noch keine ausreichende Maßnahme für eine offenere Wissenschaft. Daher möchten wir Sie abschließend auch auf die jüngst publizierten “Vienna Principles. A Vision for Scholarly Communication” hinweisen. Sie wurden von einer Gruppe junger WissenschafterInnen und WissenschaftsadministratorInnen des Open Access Network Austria (OANA) zur Diskussion gestellt und sollen Grundlage für eine offenere Wissenschaft sein. Die Open Knowledge Austria ist der österreichische Zweig (Chapter) der Open Knowledge International und hat sich der Förderung des Zugangs zu und der Verbreitung von freiem und offenem Wissen in vielfältigen Ausprägungen verschrieben. Freies Wissen führt zu mündigen und aufgeklärten Bürgern, es schafft gesellschaftlichen und ökonomischen Mehrwert und ist in einem demokratischen Staat unerlässlich. Mit freundlichen Grüßen Die Open Knowledge Austria.

OSCE Days 2016: Helsinki report

- June 30, 2016 in Uncategorized

  by Chris Holtslag and Jason Selvarajan, Helsinki, Finland The Open Source Circular Economy Days 2016 in Helsinki, Finland was held on June 11th. An estimated 100 visitors and participants came to the old railyard (Veturitallit in Pasila) to enjoy a day of discovering, making and learning. The venue was an old train turntable (kaantopoyta ) which has been converted into an urban experimental urban greenhouse. The greenhouse is managed by the ngo Dodo to showcase urban farming methods and off-grid energy system. The whole system generates its own energy from solar pv, wind and a battery bank which powered all of the nearby workshops. The event was sponsored by the Tiina ja Antti Herlinin Foundation  & Open Knowledge Finland .

Workshops

Mushroom Farm in an Old Fridge

OSCE16HEL-2 Mushroom startup Helsieni open-sourced their design of a micro-mushroom farm, repurposing a used refrigerator to grow mushrooms.  osce16hel_3 With this fridge you can have a growing and fruiting room for your home-cultivated oyster mushrooms. The workshop consisted of making holes in the fridge and installing two CPU-fans, a humidifier, a lamp and a humidity / thermometer. Read a more detailed report about the workshop here.

USB Recharger / D.I.Y. Powerwall

Osce16hel_4 Instructions for making your own USB Powerbank The experts from Pixelache ‘s trashlab  showed the participants of the workshop how to dismantle a laptop battery safely and how to harvest the Lithium-Ion batteries inside. They provided the participants with instructions (above) on how to make their own USB Powerbank. Osce16hel-5 The Tesla Powerwall made the idea of  having a battery in your house to power your electrical appliances  mainstream. The only problem is, it’s expensive. The good news is:  you can make one yourself! All you need is 100 old laptop batteries. 4 out of 6 of the Lithium-Ion cores in your average  laptop battery are perfectly functional. These are the same batteries Tesla uses in it’s Powerwall and cars! The D.I.Y. Power Wall  project is about upcycling e-waste while simultaneously moving towards  renewables. The community power bank project is a collaborative effort spanning over multiple workshops so many different people are harvesting batteries and helping to make it. OSCE16HEL-6 The inside of a typical ‘broken’ laptop battery. 6 of the 8 cells still worked perfectly.

Toy Car to Rope-climbing Robot

OSCE16HEL-7 Burhan showed how to convert an old toy car and turn it into a rope climbing robot. Materials were ice cream sticks, metal wire, rubber bands and some glue. Kids were really enjoying this workshop! Check out Burhan’s Robot youtube channel.

Emulate:  Kitchen Open Design

osce16hel-8OSCE16HEL-9osce16hel-10 Potentials of open design processes for sustainable design is widely  discussed yet seldom explored. Hence, this workshop aims to explore its  potentials through emulating an open design process and sharing  environment for parts and their assemblages. Throughout the workshop,  mainly product / part longevity will be explored along with interrelated  topics of standardization, personalization, emotional durability, ease  of maintenance, repair, reuse and upgrading. Theme of the workshop is  kitchen practices that are currently shaped around small kitchen  appliances.  A generative design toolkit will be introduced to participants to quickly explore and mock-up design  ideas, producing physical outcomes. Yekta Bakırlıoglu is a student of Aalto and this workshop was part of his research at Nodus Sustainable Design Research Group.

Peeponics System in a Greenhouse

OSCE16HEL-11 1)  Pee in a jerry can 2) let it sit for several weeks to sterilize and to convert urea to ammonium 3) Mix pee with water 1:9 ratio 4) water plants that like nitrates with it. The Peeponics workshop was about setting up the pee-powered hydroponics system for the season. It began with an introduction into the chemistry of turning pee into nutrients for plants. In a nutshell pee into a container and let it sit for several weeks. During this time urea from pee turns to ammonia and then ammonium which is used by plants. A ratio of 1:9 Pee:Water is used to dilute the nutrients to a good level in a 100 L barrel. The plant bed is a simple rectangular box padded with a water proof plastic. A hole at the bottom is used to fill and drain the nutrients ‘ebb and flow style’ to the plants which are held-up with clay pellets. A hole near the top is used as an overflow valve (like in a bathtub). The pump is timed so that it almost fills the bed and then stops for one hour. Currently just on timers but the goal is to automatit with a raspberry pi.  OSCE16HEL-12 Basic Peeponics chemistry Peeponics  closes nutrient loops from plants to pee and then back to plants again. The food grown in the greenhouse are served on weekend brunches along  side dumpster dived food and therefore boosting permaculture. This workshop was given by Jaakko Lehtonen from Dodo , an environmental organization focusing on applied research on urban agriculture in Finland.

Soap from used Cooking Oils

osce16hel-13
Water + Lye + Used Cooking Oil + ‘Finnish Peat‘ for scent = Recycled DIY Soap.
osce16hel-14
Ruby from Joosoap was teaching the participants this method from Taiwan for making soap from used cooking oil. By combining water, lye and oil the chemical process of saponification occurs, during which quite some heat is generated! The mixture is liquid and can be poured into any shape, after which it needs to cool down for some weeks and harden. JooSoap is also an upcylcing project to reduce cooking oil waste while producing local soap. 

Energy Renovation at Home

osce16hel-15 Maaria from Eksergia.fi is an expert on energy-saving technologies in and around the house. She gave an interactive lecture about the possibilities people have to reduce their energy demand and increase their comfort! Eksergia.fi is an open source database of and a guide on how to conserve energy at home, especially in the Finnish climate. This workshop focused on practical ways to reduce energy consumption in the home. More info here (Finnish): http://eksergia.fi

Circuit bending

osce16heö-16 Jonne Pitkanen created fabolous soundscapes from circuit bent instruments (hacked kids toys with added circuits to make effects like distortion and reverb).

Video Broadcast

Cindy Kohtala and Lilli Linkola made a video broadcast (with some technical glitches) from OSCE Days Helsinki 2016:
A big thanks to all the volunteers, organizations & startups giving the workshops that made this event possible!

INFO

More information can be found on the official website.
Photogalleries
Facebook page for the event
Our livecast on Hangouts Air
The post OSCE Days 2016: Helsinki report appeared first on Open Knowledge Finland.

The Secret History of Holywell Street: Home to Victorian London’s Dirty Book Trade

- June 29, 2016 in Uncategorized

Victorian sexuality is often thought synonymous with prudishness, conjuring images of covered up piano legs and dark ankle-length skirts. Dr Matthew Green uncovers a quite different scene in the sordid history of Holywell Street, 19th-century London's epicentre for erotica and smut.

Opendata.ch/2016: The Excerpts

- June 29, 2016 in Uncategorized

Quotes and impressions from the morning of the 2016 edition of the Opendata.ch conference. For all presentations and downloads click here. Text by Martina Kammermann, photography by Nicolas Fojtu, licensed CC BY 4.0.

#people #machines #algorithms

«Imagine a machine that is a hundred times smarter than you. You wouldn’t feel comfortable if this machine would be controlled by just a small group.» Marcel Salathé, Associate Professor at EPFL
Open source algorithm challenges mentioned: @crowd_ai

#opensource #e-vote #transparency

“Realising open source is a daily internal struggle. There are very few people who know the subject, and it is very difficult for them to be understood. We need community.”
«Réaliser l’open source, c’est une lutte interne de tous les jours. Il y a très peu de gens qui connaissent la matière, et c’est très difficile de le faire comprendre. On a besoin d’une communauté.» Anja Wyden Guelpa, chancelière d’Etat a Genève

#swiss #government #portal

“We will see soon new cantons on the portal. There will also be a user data requests forum.”
«On va voir des nouveaux cantons prochainement sur le portail. Il y a aura aussi un forum des souhaits pour des usagers.» Jean-Luc Cochard, Bundesarchiv

#opendata #history #learning

“The hunter-gatherers have already picked the low-hanging fruit. We must create scalability.”
«Déjà les chasseurs-cueilleurs ont cueilli les fruits les plus accèssibles. Il faut créer des échelles.» Simon Chignard, Auteur

#public #transport #openness

“The idea is to make as much data as possible public, including that which is not favorable to ourselves.”
«L’idée, c’est de rendre au public autant possible tous les données, compris celles qui ne nous sont pas favorable.» Guillaume Leborgne, SNCF

#govtech #business #process

«Open data is sustainable when it makes data production dramatically easier for the people, not harder.»
Joshua Goldstein, Department of Better Technology

#civic #business #progress

«We are working on several reforms that will make startups that use government data more viable in the Ukraine. They should have tax reductions and many other privileges. And we are trying to persuade investors that these startups matter.» Denis Gursky, 1991.vc

Reposted from blog.SODA.camp.

Marvels of Things Created and Miraculous Aspects of Things Existing

- June 28, 2016 in Uncategorized

Images from an exquisitely illustrated Persian translation, thought to hail from 17th-century Mughal India, of Zakariya al-Qazwini's medieval treatise on all things wondrous.

Marvels of Things Created and Miraculous Aspects of Things Existing

- June 28, 2016 in Uncategorized

Images from an exquisitely illustrated Persian translation, thought to hail from 17th-century Mughal India, of Zakariya al-Qazwini's medieval treatise on all things wondrous.

亞洲矽谷系列 – 台灣吸引外國人才的優勢何在?

- June 27, 2016 in Uncategorized

自6月7日的新聞得知,國發會人力發展處處長林至美表示,將有一個 “Contact Taiwan” 的攬才平臺上線,並認該平台會是「國家層級的一個單一媒合平台」,能夠發揮「攬才」的功能。 該平台上會有幾個定位:
  1. 國家層級:由政府出面攬才。
  2. 媒合:為想來台灣工作的外國人與國內企業的工作機會媒合。
來自不同國家的求職者會因為一個政府網站而前往台灣嗎?網站建置和營運之目的為何?在經過初步的徵詢後,我們得到以下回饋:
  1. 國內每年有這麼多畢業生?為什麼政府不好好的想想如何讓這些畢業生們在畢業後就能馬上為企業用?提高國內的就業機會?而是自國外找人才,讓國內的畢業生們畢業即失業
  2. 為什麼國內的企業不想麼培植人才,而是進口外國低薪白領人才?
  3. 我很樂意用國內畢業的大學生啊!
  4. 我是新創企業,希望能外國學生來實習,但政府的法規怎麼都是優惠給大企業?我們小型的新創企業怎麼辦?
  5. 那些聘用外籍實習生的評點制度怎麼這麼複雜?
  6. 有很多外國人才在台灣啊!他們多數是住在台灣接國外的案子、領國外的薪水。台灣的物價較歐美國家便宜、網路又這麼方便,台灣人對外國人也十分友善,所以他們在台灣其實過得像天堂一樣,對他們來說只要有便利的網路,就沒有國界的限制,台灣的工作環境、企業願意提供的薪資並不佳,所以有技術、有實力的外國人為什麼要為台灣的企業工作
  7. 不少外籍人士來台灣學中文同時累積自己工作經驗後,轉往中國或香港工作
  8. 所得稅、勞健保的問題,這些在人力仲介公司的幫忙下,他們只要付最低的費用就可以享受勞健保了。
  9. 國內其實有很多高階的白領級人才,他們可能想轉換跑道、提前退休,但仍有工作能力,卻找不到工作。
  10. 僑外生的薪資是4萬多元,為什麼國內的畢業生只能領2萬4千至2萬8千元?

吸引外國人才為企業工作的條件何在?

我們進一步檢視台灣政府對於攬才的政策新聞稿:
  1. 全球競才方案 – Contact Taiwan
  2. 林揆:亞洲矽谷是政府五大創新產業重要計畫 將是台灣經濟成長的引擎
  3. 從歐美延攬外籍人才效益看我國人才政策
在上述的政策願景中,只提到了為了延攬人才進來台灣工作並留在台灣,會與企業商討因應措施,讓在台灣活環境更友善,也為了方便企業留用人才,而打算鬆綁某些政策。 從台灣勞資雙方在工作情況來看,「超時工作」與「低薪」似乎是造成勞資雙方關係不佳也是台灣不易留住人才的原因。這兩日也看到不少關台灣工作環境相關新聞的報導,例如上週沸沸揚揚的罷工事件:
  1. 關鍵評論專題:華航罷工,為勞工的尊嚴起身而戰
  2. 聯合新聞網:大學畢業生28K 薪資倒退16年
  3. 自由時報:立院縮短工時公聽會 資方:希望延長加班上限
先自台灣政府在2015年時擬定的政策來看工作時數:
自105年起,公、私部門每週正常工時將同為40小時,扣除假日後,公務人員一年法定正常工時為2000小時,勞工為1992小時,以103年勞工的平均年工時2,134.8小時而言,勞工平均每月加班時數約11.8小時
主計總處最新的報告裡,則提到了2015年(104年)全年每人月工時平均為175.3小時,若整合勞動部調查結果,可以得知在該年度裡有46%的員工加班,平均每個月加班的時數為18.2小時,與2014年(103年)相較多出了7個小時。 配合OECD的數據,台灣在2014年的平均年工時是2,134.8小時,韓國是2,124小時,日本1,729小時,OECD會員國平均年工時是1,770小時,看得出來台灣在2014年的平均工時高於日本、韓國,更高於OECD會員國的平均工時。 從工作時數、每月加班數看起來,愈多的工作時數與加班時數會造成生活上的負面影響,自以上的數據可以觀察到,台灣的工時增加了,對生活的負面影響也增加了。 再自薪資水準來看,若是同樣自主計總處的資料來看2015年與2014年相較,除了製造業的漲幅較為明顯外,其他服務業的薪資雖然有小幅的增加,但幅度有限,有些產業甚至是不到1%的成長度。

有多少外國人在台灣工作?

從政策新聞稿看來,這次政府的目標是鎖定白領階級,或是配合新政府所謂的五大創新創新產業而找尋的外國專業人士。於是查閱勞動部104年底外國專業人員概況來看看在台灣工作的外籍專業人士有多少?都從事了哪些工作? 單就這份統計報告來看,可以讀出以下重點:
  1. 多數的外國專業人士申請的工作類別為「專門性技術性工作」,其次是「補習班語文教師工作」。
  2. 若依照國籍來分,日本籍的專業人士為主要來源。
  3. 若依照國籍與申請工作類別來看,日本籍的專業人士申請「專門性技術性工作」為最多次,而美國籍的專業人士以申請「補習班語文教師工作」。
由於勞動部的報告裡是統計「次數」而非「人數」,而在台灣要具有工作資格也要有所謂的居留證,所以再自移民數的網站中取得最近一次(統計至2015年04月30日)的統計資訊可以得知在台灣最多的外籍人士在職業別上外籍勞工(包含營建業技工、製造業技工、家庭幫傭、監護工、船員等),總共有540,956人,這些外籍勞工多分部在桃園市(92,150人)、台中市(76,055人)及新北市(74,394人)。若是依照移民署的職業類別來看,從事商業、教師的人數最多,這些人都在台北市,另外也觀察到其實在高雄市與台中市的外籍人士並不少,反觀在亞洲矽谷預定地桃園的外籍專業人士,可能反而不如高雄、台中、台北、新北來得多。 自專業人才顧問公司Michael Page的「2016年大中華區薪資與就業展望」報告中,在其調查的對裡,只有29%的雇主考慮用外籍人士,有34%的雇主則是擔心人才外流至海外,同時在報告中也提到了他們所觀察到的台灣現況,例如:
  1. 科技業的薪資雖然稍有調漲,但仍低於國際水準。
  2. 台灣企業較願意僱用沒有工作的台灣人,而不願僱用外國人士。
  3. 台灣的企業主面臨人才出走至中國與香港找尋更好的工作機會與較高的薪資。
綜合人力業者的觀察,再反觀台灣政府的政策,似乎缺少了人力業者所觀察到現實生活情況,在擬定與執行所謂的全球攬才時,忽略了人力市場真正的供需狀況。 我們看到政府打算透過網站作為吸引國外人才來台工作的管道,藉由國外的研究報告來作為支撐政策執行的基礎,刻意忽略了國情不同、勞資關係與政策法規的不同,是否能造就同樣的正向效果? 從人力業者的報告、國家內部的統計數據、國內各媒體的新聞資料,都顯示出台灣應該先以建置健全的工作環境為目標。從這次華航的罷工行動裡,看得出來影響層面、社會成本是如何昂貴。致力建立一個留住自己國家人才的健全勞動政策、打造勞雙方雙贏的工作環境,都提醒了執政團隊應該要著眼的重點不是網站,而是工作環境 — 要留住人才,要先有良好的工作環境,與企業的人資部門、人力業者、工會代表溝通,了解勞方的需求,資方提供適合的薪資、工時、加班制度、福利,都比花錢、花心力再去做一個政府網站來得實際
作者:譚宛宛 編輯:OK Taiwan  

Guess Me (1879)

- June 22, 2016 in Uncategorized

Illustrated by George Cruikshank among others, a collection of word, number, and picture puzzles in the form of enigmas, conundrums, acrostics, and a series of incredibly tricky rebuses.

Wir suchen IT Support für das Projekt 2030 Watch

- June 3, 2016 in Uncategorized

Die Open Knowledge Foundation Deutschland sucht zum nächstmöglichen Zeitpunkt IT Support (gern Studentische Hilfskraft ) für das Projekt 2030 Watch. Du interessierst Dich für Tech-Projekte und Nachhaltigkeit? Du bist Programmierer/in und hast Lust, daran Deine eigenen Ideen in ein Datenprojekt einzubringen und ein spannendes Tool weiterzuentwickeln, dass Menschen ein komplexes Thema nahe bringt? Du möchtest gerne für eine NGO arbeiten, hast eine eigenständige Arbeitsweise, Lust viel zu lernen und dich weiterzuentwickeln. Trifft auf Dich zu? Dann freuen wir uns darauf, Dich kennenzulernen. Bei 2030 Watch geht es darum, die Umsetzung der UN Agenda für Nachhaltige Entwicklung in Deutschland und anderen Industrieländern anhand von Indikatoren und Datenvisualisierungen zu überwachen und zu visualisieren. Die Open Knowledge Foundation Deutschland (OKF-DE) ist ein Verein in Berlin, der sich für die Bereitstellung und Nutzung öffentlicher Daten für zivilgesellschaftliche Beteiligung, Transparenz und Rechenschaftslegung einsetzt. Der Verein ist Teil des internationalen Open Knowledge Foundation Netzwerkes und steht hinter innovativen Projekten wie Frag-den-Staat, Jugend-hackt, Coding Da Vinci und Code for Germany.